CEACSE (Center of Excellence in Applied Computational Science and Engineering)
 

The mission of the Center of Excellence in Applied Computational Science and Engineering (CEACSE) is to establish and expand a cohesive multidisciplinary effort in applied computational science and engineering that is leveraged across UTC and produce sustained growth in research funding, excellence in integrated education and research, and to increase national and international stature and competitiveness in Tennessee.  

These funds are awarded annually on a competitive basis. The primary goal of this program is to enable development of new capabilities and extramural projects in the area of Computational Sciences.  Awards support CEACSE strategic priority areas of Urban Science, Energy & Environment, Defense/Aerospace, and Biomedical research.

The overall purpose of the Center of Excellence in Applied Computational Science is to establish a cohesive and expanding base of multidisciplinary research in applied computational science and engineering to produce sustained growth in research funding, excellence in integrated research and education, and increases in national and international stature and economic competitiveness for Tennessee.

Computational simulation is critically important for the analysis and design of future high technology products and systems in a competitive global marketplace. The future security and economic well being of our country will depend in part on an adequate supply of scientists and engineers who are highly skilled in the use of computers to solve important engineering problems using modeling and simulation.

This evolution is transforming the use of high technology by introducing computational simulation and design software that supplements experiments and testing to produce competitive advantages in critical areas such as price, time-to-market, life-cycle costs, and overhead. Although these benefits to industry are driving the changes in engineering practice, science education in the U.S. has not responded adequately to the challenge of providing graduates who are adequately prepared.

In view of the extensive use of computational methodologies in design by industry, there is a significant role for innovative programs of integrated research and graduate education (i.e., graduate research in an applications environment) that is distinct from traditional university research activity.

The use of computers to solve complex, large-scale, practical problems is a trend that will accelerate in years to come.

UTC has recognized that these prospects now offer a dramatic window of opportunity to provide the leadership in computational applications driven research and education needed for future competitiveness in the high-technology sector of the global economy. UTC has also positioned itself through past research and faculty additions to provide this leadership for Tennessee.

This year a total of $684,332 was awarded to nine lead principal investigators and twelve collaborating investigators across eight different departments.

2019 Competition (Funding for FY2020)


2018-2019 CEACSE Awards


Project Title: Urban Electric Vehicle Charging Markets: Computational Modeling and Optimal Design

Dr. Vahid Rasouli Disfani, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Mina Sartipi, and Dr. M. Ahmadi

Dr. V.A. Disfani

Dr. Vahid Rasouli Disfani, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Mo Ahmadi

Dr. Mo Ahmadi

Guerry Professor of Management
Management, College of Business

 

 

 

Abstract: Maximizing utilization of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—or electric vehicle (EV) charging stations—is still a challenge for cities like Chattanooga despite the emergence of EV station locators like PlugShare and ChargeHub. The missing key element in this market is the lack of data from the demand side of EVs, which often leaves EVs desperate for charging not connected while EVSEs are available nearby. This project computationally models and designs an infrastructure that simultaneously gathers demand (EV) data—including desired destinations, connection period, and energy demand—as well as EVSE availability data to optimally match them to maximize social welfare.


Project Title: 3D Drone Delivery Transportation Problem

Dr. Ignatius Formunung, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Mbakisya A. Onyango, Dr. Arash Ghasemi, and Dr. Joseph Owino

Dr. I. Fomunung

Dr. Ignatius Fomunung, Lead PI

UC Foundation Professor, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

Dr. M.A. Onyango

Dr. Mbakisya A. Onyango

UC Foundation Associate Professor, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Joe Owino

Dr. Arash Ghasemi

Director, Civil Infrastructure Laboratory & Research, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Joe Owino

Dr. Joseph Owino

UC Foundation Professor and Department Head, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

Abstract: In this work, we consider the realistic model of the three-dimensional motion of a self-controlled drone in a densely populated urban environment. The objective is to deliver packages from multiple points to the multiple destinations using a connected group of drones. The cityscape is first modeled accurately using a tetrahedral grid generated around the GIS data. This grid is then used to determine the connectivity of the destination points. A recent algorithm developed by our team will be utilized to find the minimum routing for each drone. These routes are then corrected by incorporating the wind forces obtained using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver. The idea is to weight the graph such that the drones travel in the wakes of the buildings to have minimum fuel (energy) consumption. We utilize our CFD solver to achieve this goal. Also, we use a 6DOF model for drone and aerodynamic forces obtained by the CFD solver. A simple PID controller is used in each drone to augment the path. The results have vital applications in military data collection by flying spy drones, optimized package delivery using drones, and smart and futuristic cities (where cars can fly!).


Project Title: Estimating the Youden Index under the Multivariate ROC Curve in the Presence of Missing Values of Mass Diseased and Healthy Biomarker Data

Dr. Sumith Gunasekera, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. L. Weerasena, Dr. H. Qin, and Mr. Aruna Saram

Dr. S. Gunasekera

Dr. Sumith Gunasekera, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

Dr. L. Weerasena

Dr. Lakmali Weerasena

Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

Dr. Hon Qin

Dr. Hong Qin

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

No Photo Available

Mr. Aruna Saram

Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

Abstract: In the context of Binary classification, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves have played an important role in classifying individuals/objects into one of the two predefined classes/populations. These procedures explain how to estimate the Youden index that measures the accuracy of a diagnostic test. However, problem arises when data contains missing values. The proposed research demonstrates how the Youden index for the diseased and healthy subjects can be extended to multi-biomarkers in the higher-dimensional space by analytic and extensive computational continuation of the mass missing data of multi-biomarkers from breast cancer and by intensive and extensive computations of the simulated mass data with the aid of generalized variable method. This computational-extensive mass-data-based procedure is novel and reduces the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies by helping physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short-term follow-up examination instead. This goal is accomplished by the comparison of classical and generalized variable procedures for the multivariate Youden Index for the multi-biomarkers with missing data, where missing data are cleaned or tackled with the aid of imputation using parallel programming procedures in machine learning.


Project Title: STC3: A Smart Trust-based Connected Autonomous Collaborative Communities

Dr. Farah Kandah, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. F. Kandah

Dr. Farah Kandah, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Connected autonomous vehicles (CAV) are among the key components contributing to Smart City initiatives. Besides communication protocols, securing the network and establishing trust between network entities are among the main challenges that need to be addressed in the field. Securing the network against outsiders’ attacks—trying to bypass the authentication scheme—as well as insiders’ attacks—trying to pollute the network with forged information—are essences to be addressed. Thus, there is both a critical and urgent need to design, prototype, validate, and demonstrate an integrated, real-time system that is better able to ensure the safety of the system by identifying, reporting, and isolating suspicious activities that require immediate attention. In the absence of such information, comprehensive prevention of trust attacks will be impossible, threatening human lives and inhibiting the further development and expansion of the connected and autonomous vehicle industry. The PIs at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) are uniquely qualified to address the proposed research. Prior work by the team has produced significant early findings that enabled the PIs to design and prototype an effective system. Specific strengths in software-defined networking (SDN) and mmWave enables the team to introduce those concepts as key to improving the proposed trust approach. 


Project Title: Using Computational Tools to Understand the Fundamental Rules of Life

Dr. Hope Klug, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Boyd, Dr. Azad Hossain and Dr. Hong Qin

Dr. Hope Klug

Dr. Hope Klug, Lead PI

UC Foundation Associate Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

Dr. Jennifer Boyd

Dr. Jennifer Boyd

Associate Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

 

Dr. Azad Hossain

Dr. Azad Hossain

Assistant Professor, Biology, Geology & Environmental Science

 

 

 

 

Dr. Hon Qin

Dr. Hong Qin

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering


 

Abstract: A fundamental goal in biology is to understand the diversity of life in relation to interactions among organisms and their environment. Most biological studies thus far have involved the analysis of relatively small data sets. To understand diversity on a large scale, we need to shift our focus to the analysis of large datasets. To address the question of why we see striking variation in living organisms, we will use big data and cutting-edge computational tools to: 1) enhance our understanding of biological robustness by examining gene/protein interaction networks; 2) explore the factors that make some species rare and other species common; and 3) investigate how abiotic and biotic factors drive the evolution of individual-level traits. In all cases, we will evaluate species network configurations using environmental fluctuations across spatial and temporal scales.


Project Title: Modeling Online Social Network Dynamics and Predicting Information Diffusion with Fractional Differential Equations

Dr. Lingju Kong, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. John R. Graef, and Dr. Andrew Ledoan

Dr. Lingju Kongi

Dr. Lingju Kong, Lead PI

Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

Dr. John R. Graef

Dr. John R. Graef

Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

 

Dr. Andrew Ledoan

Dr. Andrew Ledoan

Associate Professor and Associate Head, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

Abstract: The use of social media has been spreading at an accelerated rate in the last decade. Today, there are many social media platforms such as blogs and social network sites. While the dynamics of online social networks have been studied using several models formulated via classical derivatives, these models are local, fail to capture the memory of the system, and have some other deficiencies. The aim of the proposed project is to improve on these studies by utilizing the theory of fractional calculus. Two new dynamic mathematical models based on fractional calculus will be proposed to serve as effective tools for analyzing the mechanisms of online social networks. More precisely, the investigators will first use fractional ordinary differential equations to construct a model to better understand the adoption and abandonment of a social network. Next, they will employ a fractional partial differential equation to model the spatial and temporal characteristics of information diffusion. These models will be compared with real datasets from selected networks. Various model properties such as existence, uniqueness, and stability of solutions will be investigated. Moreover, extensive numerical simulations will be performed to facilitate the analysis and refinement of these models.


Project Title: Ionizing Radiation Effects Spectroscopy for Secure Space and Defense Communications

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Donald R. Reising

Dr. Daniel Loveless

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Donald Reising

Dr. Donald R. Reising

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Process-induced variability and device-level reliability have been identified as bottlenecks to system reliability, introducing a stochastic nature chip functionality. This disruption necessitates (1) new techniques for measurement of stochastic time-dependent defects; (2) a framework for understanding the dominant device-level reliability failure mechanisms in emerging and disruptive technologies for higher-fidelity predictions of lifetime; and (3) a fundamental understanding of the interplay of variability, operational constraints, and device performance for development of future electronics infrastructure with clear applications in Internet-of-Things and Space and Defense systems. These goals will be accomplished through the integration of computational modeling techniques and experimental measurements. We will (1) perform time-dependent defect measurements on advanced FinFET devices; (2) develop stochastic-based models that describe the reliability failure mechanisms and compact models of the time-dependent defects for integration into device and circuit simulators; and (3) provide a novel tool, Ionizing Radiation Effects Spectroscopy (IRES), for measuring the impact of such effects in operational communications systems in situ. This work will offer a fundamentally new approach to evaluating system-level reliability vulnerabilities and has the potential for transforming the way industry assesses electronic device, component, and system reliability.


Project Title: Investigating the Flow of Nanodrugs through Bio-Inspired Hydrogel Channels

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Abstract: Nanodrugs are highly attractive for next-generation medicine because they can be selectively targeted to diseased sites, provide diagnostic capability, and show better solubility compared to conventional therapeutics. However, their transport properties and accumulation within the body are largely unknown, due to experimental challenges in imaging the nanodrugs in complex medium. Recently, we developed a combined experimental and computational fluid dynamic approach at UTC to predict the velocity of a new Pt-iron oxide nanodrug through channels of different shapes. In this project, we aim to answer the fundamental question about transport behavior of the nanodrug through custom-designed channels made of materials that closely mimic bronchial airway. The channels will be experimentally developed through two novel approaches: 3D bioprinting and growing different hydrogels within the channel walls. We will develop a computational fluid dynamic model to predict the flow of nanodrug through these bio-inspired channels for the first time in-house at UTC. The proposed project will have two major outcomes. The computational fluid dynamic model will be a significant breakthrough in drug development and delivery, and using bio-inspired engineering to develop the flow path for nanodrugs will be a key experimental achievement. The project will be used to develop external proposals and publications.


Project Title: Analyzing Bioimage Big Data with Deep Learning Neural Networks

Dr. Hong Qin, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Joey Shaw, Dr. Yu Liang and Dr. Craig Tanis

Dr. Hon Qin

Dr. Hong Qin

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 


 

Dr. Joey Shaw

Dr. Joey Shaw

UC Foundation Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

 

Dr. Yu Liang

Dr. Yu Liang

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

 

Dr. Craig Tanis

Dr. Craig Tanis

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Our goal is to develop state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks models (CNNs) to transform two fields of biological research: cellular aging and plant species identification. For cellular aging, we plan to first develop supervised machine learning methods to cluster and label microscopic image for dividing yeast cells. We will then use these labeled images to train CNNs to automatically infer cell division events. For plant species identification, we plan to develop two CNN models and apply them sequentially: the first model will identify plant object regions from herbarium sheets, and the second model will use these objects to classify plant samples into meaningful clusters. Our proposed research will significantly advance the current bioimage big data analytics in these two fields.


Project Title: Improving Post-Stroke Management Efficiency and Patient Outcomes through Analytics

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Nancy Fell

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Nancy Fell

Dr.  Nancy Fell

UC Foundation Professor, Physical Therapy

 

 

 

Abstract: For this CEACSE research project, our multidisciplinary team of academic researchers from the Computer Science and Engineering and Physical Therapy Departments will work together to develop a data-driven precision healthcare ecosystem for the management of stroke, the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. This problem also aligns with the recently launched “big data to knowledge” initiative by NIH. Large-scale multi-modal heterogeneous data and big data analytics are the body and soul of the proposed research, respectively. Data preprocessing, predictive modeling, and prescriptive analytics will be explored and exploited to close the loop of big data analytics for precision healthcare. The computationally intensive concepts, models, algorithms, and functions will be designed and developed to transfer rich data to knowledge—and further to personalized decision support. The proposed inter-professional research will benefit both academic and healthcare communities.


Project Title: Urban Resilience in the Post-Evacuation Age: Combining CFD and ABM for Megacities

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi and Dr. Ethan Hereth

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Ethan Hereth

Dr. Ethan Hereth

High Performance Computing Specialist, Computational Science

 

 

 

Abstract: The overarching goal of the proposed project is to reconstitute the capability (at the SimCenter) to carry out city-scale simulations such that evacuation planning can be carried out. This work will be carried out in collaboration with Dr. Epstein from NYU. The simulations will be carried out using technology developed at the SimCenter, while the agent-based models (ABM) will use agents developed by Dr. Epstein. Upon successful completion, results from this project will be used for an article that is to appear in Science. This approach of coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ABM has applications beyond the proposed project and can be used, for example, to track the spread of pandemics, etc.


Project Title: Waterborne Infections and Pathogen Dynamics: Modeling, Experimentation, and Large-Scale Computation

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. David Giles and Dr. Bradley Harris

Dr. Jin Wang

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI

Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

 Dr. David Giles

Dr. David Giles

Assistant Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

Dr. Bradley Harris

Dr. Bradley Harris

Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Waterborne infectious diseases remain a significant public heath burden worldwide. In particular, cholera, a severe intestinal infection caused by virulent strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, has expanded in Africa and South Asia and re-emerged in the Americas in recent years as a serious health threat, with an estimated 2-4 million of cases per year reported by the World Health Organization. Effective outbreak response and control strategies for waterborne diseases rely on a deep understanding of the pathogen dynamics in reference to the epidemiologic triad of agent, host, and environment. The proposed research aims to establish a new mathematical and computational framework to investigate the pathogen dynamics related to waterborne infections, with a focus on cholera, and to make new discoveries regarding disease transmission and pathogen evolution. The project will combine mathematical models, biological experiments, and advanced numerical methods, with an emphasis on large-scale computation for model implementation and realistic application. The project belongs to the Health/Biomedical priority area.


Project Title: Modeling Fate and Transport of Engineered Nanomaterial in Surface Water Systems

Dr. Weidong Wu, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Jejal Reddy Bathi and Dr. Robert Webster

Dr. Weidong Wu

Dr. Weidong Wu, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

 

 

 Dr. Jejal Reddy Bathi

Dr. Jejal Reddy Bathi

Visiting Assistant Professor, Civil and Chemical Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Robert Webster

Dr. Robert Webster

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Unique properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have resulted in their increased production. However, it is unclear how these emerging ENM will move and react once released to the environment. One approach for addressing possible exposure of ENM in surface waters is by using numerical, mechanistic fate and transport models. There are no reliable fate models currently available that have the ability to simulate ENM behavior in the environment. Our proposed research will explore capabilities of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) model, originally developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for simulating hydrodynamics of surface waters, for simulating ENM. We will examine the model algorithms to address the processes governing ENM in aqueous media. Since the literature pertaining to type and quantity of ENM in surface water environment is limited, as the first phase of the proposed research, a systematic evaluation of available literature to identify expected ENM and their physical, chemical, and biological properties that are important in pollutants fate assessment will be conducted. Second and third phases of the proposed research will include development of a calibrated EFDC model for a river hydraulics and ENM fate simulation under varied scenarios of changed river flows and pollutant loads.

2017-2018 CEACSE Awards


Project Title: “Computational Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Wave Energy”

Dr. Feng Bao, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas and Dr. Jin Wang

Dr. Feng Bao

Dr. Feng Bao, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics

 

 

 

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Jin Wang

Dr. Jin Wang

Professor and UNUM Chair of Excellence in Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics

 

 

Abstract: Ocean waves, generated by wind blowing over the water surface, have tremendous energy which can be captured and converted into electricity. With the rising demand for energy, growing consumption of oil and gas, and increasing global warming, waves offer an attractive green energy source and have generated considerable interest in research, development and testing in recent years. The research carried out in this work focuses on deriving mathematical and computational methods which describe structure motions occur between ocean wave, wind wave and solid energy converters. The research activities conducted in this project will establish interdisciplinary collaborations between Department of Mathematics and SimCenter at UTC, and will also build a research direction for future Ph.D. students in the Ph.D. program in Computational Science with concentration in Computational Mathematics within Department of Mathematics.


Project Title: “A Computational Study of the Impact of Fatty Acid Substitutions on the Vibrio cholerae Outer and Inner Membranes”

Dr. Bradley Harris, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. David Giles and Dr. Ethan Hereth

Dr. Bradley Harris

Dr. Bradley Harris, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. David Giles

Dr. David Giles

Assistant Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

Dr. Ethan Hereth

Dr. Ethan Hereth

High Performance Computing Specialist, Computational Science

 

 

 

Abstract: Food- and waterborne enteric pathogens kill approximately 2 million people each year, and the ways in which these organisms uptake and utilize fatty acids are critical to their ability to spread disease. One of the most extensively studied of these pathogens is Vibrio cholerae, the Gramnegative bacterium responsible for the acute intestinal infection known as cholera. The ability of this pathogen to uptake fatty acids from its environment may contribute to its ability to survive as it passes through the human gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this project is to build computational models to further our understanding of the structure and function of bacterial membranes and provide new insights relevant to the prevention and treatment of this disease. This project fosters collaboration among researchers in biology, chemical engineering, and computational science. The combined results of this study will serve to establish this research team as investigators in the field, and will be used to support the pursuit of external funding through agencies such as the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.


Project Title: “The Development and Application of Computational Tools to Address Fundamental Questions in Ecology and Evolution”

Dr. Hope Klug, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Boyd and Dr. Hong Qin

Dr. Hope Kug

Dr. Hope Klug, Lead PI

UC Foundation Associate Professor, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

Dr. Jennifer Boyd

Dr. Jennifer Boyd

Associate Professor; Graduate Program Coordinator, Biology, Geology and Environmental Science

 

 

 

Dr. Hong Qin

Dr. Hong Qin

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

 

Abstract: In recent years, funding agencies and journals have required researchers to deposit data in depositories, which has led to large datasets that can potentially be used to answer fundamental biological questions about the astounding diversity of life in relation to interactions among organisms and their environment (i.e., ecology) and changes across generations in the genetic and phenotypic makeup of populations (i.e., evolution) on a broad scale. We will develop and utilize novel computational tools that allow us to effectively analyze large datasets extracted from biological databases to investigate the link between biological traits and species’ rarity, as well as climate change vulnerability. We will also investigate how life-history traits, ecological conditions, and sociality interact to influence mating and parental dynamics. The proposed research will allow us to utilize the high performance computing resources to address pressing questions in ecology and evolution, expand the research programs in two departments and colleges and allow non-computer scientists to collaborate with a computer scientist. This work will lead to high-impact publications and grant submissions, and facilitate the research training of numerous undergraduate and graduate students.


Project Title: “Computational Fluid Dynamic Approach to Predict Transport and Distribution of Nanodrugs”

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury

Dr. Soubantika Palchoudhury, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Abstract: Nanodrugs are seen as next-generation solution in the field of biomedicine, particularly for their use as chemotherapeutic and drug delivery agents. The key advantage of nanodrugs is their ability to selectively reach the diseased site without affecting the healthy tissues. In nanomedicine, a computational approach is used to predict the transport and distribution profile of nanodrugs inside the body, but the method is still in its developmental stages. Transport of nanodrugs is a complex process due to the combined involvement of hydrodynamic forces, chemical interaction of the surface, magnetic attraction, adhesion to the cell wall, and Brownian forces. The goal of this project is to develop a robust computational fluid dynamics model for predicting the transport of a new Pt-iron oxide nanodrug synthesized at CECS, and to determine the factors dominating the drug’s transport. The project will put the SimCenter at the forefront of emerging innovation in the field of Health and Biological Systems. In addition, the project has tremendous potential for publication in high-impact journals like Nano Letters, Chemical Communications, and ACS Nano due to its novelty. This research will also serve to provide preliminary data for extramural funding opportunities.


Project Title: “Connecting the Control Theory of Engineering to a Network Theory of Cellular Aging in Biology”

Dr. Hong Qin, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Craig Tanis

Dr. Hong Qin

Dr. Hong Qin, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Craig Tanis

Dr. Craig Tanis

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: In Engineering, control theory studies how a system can be tuned to desirable behavior with given input through feedback. Applying control theory to gene networks is a promising new direction in systems biology and precision medicine because it can improve targeted gene therapies. We recently developed a network model for cellular aging which uses the same graph models with network control studies. We propose to apply network control theory in our gene network model of cellular aging, thereby identify critical genes and gene interactions required for longevity. Methods developed through this pilot project will establish UTC in an important new research direction on complex networks and will enhance research across disciplines on campus.


Project Title: “Unlocking the Secrets of RF-DNA Fingerprinting”

Dr. Donald Reising, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Daniel Loveless

Dr. Donald Reising

Dr. Donald R. Reising, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Daniel Loveless

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Wireless communication networks are seamlessly used to not only conduct personal communication, but also by businesses to carry out daily operations that are essential to their success. Therefore, it is imperative that these networks employ sufficient security measures essential to providing a trusted exchange of information while simultaneously protecting and safeguarding both users and associated information. Digital techniques such as encryption and authentication are commonly attacked and compromised and they fail to leverage the naturally occurring discriminatory information contained within the wireless waveforms themselves. Radio Frequency (RF) fingerprinting is one technique that has been developed to leverage such discriminatory information as a means of enhancing wireless network security. However, the relationship between the RF hardware components and the exploited distinct and native attributes remains unexplored, because researchers traditionally treat this collection of components as a “black box” with little to no thought as to how they contribute and/or possibly hinder RF fingerprinting. The proposed effort looks to open the “black box” and investigate the connection between the waveform distinct and native attributes exploited by the RF fingerprinting process, and the hardware components that are used in the construction of the wireless device. This work is integral to the development of secure wireless communication networks that will be deployed throughout the smart and connected communities of the future.


Project Title: “Enabling Wireless 3C Technologies for Smart and Connected Cities”

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Farah Kandah and Dr. Zhen Hu

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. F. Kandah

Dr. Farah Kandah

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering 

 

 

 

No Photo Available

Dr. Zhen Hu

Post Doctoral Fellow, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: There is an unstoppable trend sweeping the globe for smart and connected cities (S&CCs) that are increasingly revolutionizing our lives, with enormous benefits. In order to achieve S&CCs, we need a powerful infrastructure/backbone to facilitate high-performance data transmission, data analysis, and data storage in the Age of Big Data. Due to the prevalence of mobile/Internet-of-Things devices and emerging applications, wireless technologies and mobile communications plays an irreplaceable role. Thus, by combining data with mobility, we propose to design a fundamental wireless infrastructure and to promote novel wireless 3C (Communication, Computing, and Caching) technologies to support the whole data ecosystem in S&CCs. The proposed infrastructure will enable multiple heterogeneous radio access technologies and hierarchical computing/caching modalities. Our proposed research will exploit the state-of-the-art mathematical programming and big data analytics and leverage the theoretical/applied computational science and engineering in the S&CCs design, development, and optimization. Our achievements can contribute to the advancement of 5G technologies and foster the further study on future wireless. Meanwhile, our research can attract the extensive collaborations among academic scholars, industrial partners, and community stakeholders, and have a great potential to transform Chattanooga, TN from Gig City to Wireless Gig City, and eventually to a truly smart and connected city by taking advantage of EPB’s gigabit fiber optics in Chattanooga, TN.


Project Title: “Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Capability for Aerospace/Defense Applications”

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Abstract: Noise from various sources is a part of everyday life. The ability to simulate the generation and propagation of noise is a significant challenge. This is primarily because acoustic waves are a perturbation (very small changes) of the ambient pressure. Consequently, significant computational resources are needed in order to resolve these waves accurately. A recent advance in high-order algorithms enables one to increase the order of accuracy (instead of or in addition to increasing spatial resolution) locally. This could have significant implications for acoustic wave propagation as it could drive down the cost of these simulations. The proposed research will focus on applying high-order techniques to canonical and practical problems in aeroacoustics.


Project Title: “Robust Multifactor Framework for Large-scale Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Energy Systems of the U.S. Commercial Buildings”

Dr. Endong Wang, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Neslihan Alp

Dr. Endong Wang

Dr. Endong Wang, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Engineering Management & Technology

 

 

 

 Dr. Neslihan Alp

Dr. Neslihan Alp

Associate Dean, Dept. Head, UC Foundation Professor and Director of Graduate Programs, Engineering Management & Technology

 

In the U.S., existing commercial buildings, such as shopping centers, office buildings, and warehouses, account for around 38% of the total energy consumed. Reducing energy usage through various renovation measures in commercial buildings is an important opportunity to substantially reduce energy use and thereby, mitigate possible environmental deterioration. Accurately identifying the sources contributing to energy loss and waste of building energy systems is the first step to reduce energy consumption. Fault detection and diagnosis remains a significant challenge in the domain due to the complexity of building energy systems. Energy benchmarking, which essentially contrasts a target building against referential peers to locate deficiencies, has been frequently adopted in both academia and industry to identify energy system faults for building renovation. Existing multi-criteria benchmarking procedures tend to ignore the inherent interactions between factors or subsystems, e.g. occupants and building structures, which could lead to serious decision errors. We have performed some work to improve this issue for residential buildings. Combining information theory, this proposed project intends to further expand our model to a generalized framework by overcoming algorithm deficiencies to be more functional. It aims at developing an efficient energy decision analysis instrument which expects to facilitate energy retrofitting success both locally and nationally to lower energy use in commercial buildings.

2016-2017 CEACSE Awards 

2016-2017 Final Report


Project Title: “Computational Simulations of the Aerothermal Environment of Hypersonic Flight Vehicles”

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Robert S. Webster

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Continued advances in physics-based simulation technologies in general, and in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) in particular, are essential and required to support almost every aspect of the Hypersonic project. These capabilities will be used to generate accurate numerical predictions to provide and enhance our understanding of the complex flow phenomena that occur at the hypersonic regime (such as aerothermodynamics, aerodynamic, chemical reactions, and high heat transfer) around any flight vehicle. Current effort at the UTC/SimCenter is to develop and validate a physics-based numerical capability for simulating flow around hypersonic aerospace vehicles and components of vehicles, so that performance can be more accurately evaluated and better understood.


Project Title: “Investigation of Resources and Planning for Advanced Manufacturing Applications Center (AMAC) at UT Chattanooga”

Dr. Trevor S. Elliott, Lead PI 
Other Personnel: Chase Dobbins – Undergraduate student

Dr. Trevor S. Elliott

Dr. Trevor S. Elliott, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: 

This work was centered on the development of a resource plan, personnel and infrastructural, related to creating a center for advanced manufacturing. To that end, faculty within the SimCenter, the college of engineering, and other colleges at UTC were linked to topic areas relevant to manufacturing. More specifically they were linked to areas found to be of interest to local manufactures and constituent base of UTC. While the manufacturer needs were assessed the center infrastructural requirements were analyzed. A major finding was that industries are not currently utilizing advanced techniques/technologies in their processes. These industries voiced a desire to test these new techniques and technologies within their current production and a need for integration with conventional processes. The subsequent research on integration yielded results about companies reacting to exactly this need, such as GF+ with a pallet system for moving products from conventional processes to advanced or additive processes in a bulk and automated fashion. This company indicated their process was in need of modeling and simulation similar to what the SimCenter could provide. In addition to the modeling and simulation needs this finding pointed out the possible need for a technology transfer component within the center. 

The facility layout produced within this work was a crucial element in space conversations and the space for the center has been secured. While creating the facility layout, equipment was assessed for its merits using a customized weighting scheme and desired equipment was selected for consideration. During the evaluation of potential equipment current faculty interests were considered which leads to a desired outcome of matched faculty interests to center subtopics and possible funding opportunities. The community impacts thus far have been in the area of awareness and soliciting of interested parties in the Chattanooga area. Entrepreneurial players such as CoLab, Branch Technologies, Collider Technologies, Feetz, and the Enterprise Center have been brought into the planning meetings for center realization. Industrial entities such as Komatsu, Tuftco, TN Rand, and Roper Company have been consulted to ascertain their needs and provide awareness about the center. Resources for certifications were located and resulted in an indirect student impact. These resources have now been implemented in a senior level course. The students in this course, all mechanical engineering students, will have the tools, training, and free access to certification for entry level lean six sigma certification.


Project Title: “Healthy and Intelligent Transportation Planning: Estimating Return on Investment Associated with Improved Infrastructure for Bicycling and Walking and Decreased Physical Inactivity in Chattanooga/Hamilton County”

Dr. Gregory W. Heath, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Mina Sartipi and Dr. James Newman
Other Personnel: Mr. Andrew Mindermann – GIS Technician, Dr. Guijing Wang – Health economist – CDC, Mr. Eric Asboe – Transportation Planner- City of Chattanooga

Dr. Gregory Heath

Dr. Gregory Heath, Lead PI

Guerry Professor and Assistant Vice Chancellor for Research, Research & Sponsored Programs

 

 

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. James Newman III

Dr. James C. Newman III

Professor; Department Head; Computational Science & Engineering PhD Program Coordinator, Mechanical Engineering

 

Abstract: Based on data related to environment, transportation, and health, we proposed to provide a customized ‘environmental infrastructure and health return-on-investment calculator’ to be used by planners and personal users to guide in planning for pedestrian/bicycle path cost outlays for the former and healthy active wayfinding by the latter. Transport and recreation path/sidewalk costs were assessed in partnership with the city of Chattanooga’s Department of Transportation for both recent and projected transport and recreation construction costs, land costs, projected construction time, and populations reached. Physical inactivity behavior associated impact on heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, and breast cancer prevention outcomes were calculated using: 1) the relative risk (RR) for each of the chronic diseases in association with estimates of physical inactivity; 2) accessing through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the current prevalence of physical inactivity among the adult population 18 years and older residing in Chattanooga/Hamilton County and specifically Census Tracts 16, 18, 19, and 20; 3) using the results from steps 1 and 2 to calculate a Chattanooga/Hamilton Countyspecific and Census-specific Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) for each of the physical inactivity and chronic disease outcomes; and 4) Adjust the PAF’s for each of the outcomes in accordance with the effect size expected from the sidewalks and paths on behavioral changes in terms of increased levels of physical activity among the adult population; and 5) adjusted cost of chronic disease’s affected by changes in physical activity due to sidewalk/path changes. In addition, we created an application that provides a personalized planning for active transportation in response to vehicular traffic patterns and air quality so as to alert bike and pedestrian active transporters about the potential hazards and/or conditions of travel routes. Hence, in terms of urban planning, the data generated by our applications resulted in a potential tool that urban planners can use to maintain/build good/safe road/street networks and urban facilities to support active transportation and physical activities among residents. Our models assessing the impact of increased exposure to dedicated transport/recreation sidewalks/bike paths demonstrated a decrease in physical inactivity among adult residents in Chattanooga Census Tracts 16, 18, 19, 20 by a range of 25% to 50%, with a corresponding decrease in chronic diseases and their associated costs by as much as $1.2M over a project 4-year period, thus providing evidence for a return-on-investment for constructing such sidewalk/pathways. 


Project Title: “Modeling Space and Defense Environmental Effects in Emerging Integrated Circuit Technologies”

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless, Lead PI
Other Personnel: Amee Patel, Matthew Joplin - Graduate Students; Ellis Richards, Ryan Boggs - Undergraduate Students

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

Abstract: Typical electronics reliability modeling tools reside in a proprietary industry setting, employ techniques for a specific need, and are inappropriate for emerging integrated circuit technologies. Further, current methods involve extrapolation of short-term degradation profiles for predicting long-term behavior and lead to inaccurate and over constrained reliability predictions, and significantly limit the use of emerging integrated technologies in large distributed systems. This effort involved development of a stochastic based modeling technique for capturing intrinsic parameter fluctuations that account for time-dependent workload conditions influencing electronics reliability. Further, a novel method for measuring the stochastic behavior of atomic-level defects within electronics devices was developed. The hardware was provided to Sandia National Laboratories for measurement of time-dependent reliability in advanced and emerging semiconductor technologies. Future work will involve the collection of data for further improvement of the stochastic models, and the integration of the models into industry-standard simulation tools. This work offers a fundamentally new approach to evaluating system-level reliability vulnerabilities, enabling new approaches for mitigation, and has the potential for transforming the way industry assesses electronic device, component, and system reliability.


Project Title: “FUNSAFE Framework Development for Enhanced Multidisciplinary and Multiphysics Simulations”

Dr. James C. Newman III, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Dr. Robert Webster, and Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. James Newman III

Dr. James C. Newman III, Lead PI

Professor; Department Head; Computational Science & Engineering PhD Program Coordinator, Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

 Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

Abstract: The proposed research re-factored a version of the FUNSAFE framework to facilitate, enhance, and extend simulation capabilities. In the Review Summary for this award, reviewers commented that the research “does not strike me as overly creative or transformative”, “This seems more like a support effort that should be funded under the other proposals rather than stand on its own”, and “A clear path to future funding for a follow-on project is needed”. Unfortunately, the reviewers did not recognize that funding opportunities may be pursued proactively through the development of creative and/or transformative research as well as arise based on unique capabilities/expertise possessed by the faculty. The latter falls under the category of reactionary opportunities, and particularly within the DoD, the vast majority of funding is obtained in this manner. The current award, and research conducted, not only enhanced capability, but will make UTC researchers’ proposals more cost competitive. Furthermore, as discussed in a subsequent section, the current THEC award has already successfully attracted extramural funding. Moreover, with regards to being transformative, NASA within the Transformational Tools and Technologies Program, and in partnership with the United States Air Force, have recently embarked on a re-factoring effort for their simulation software that is similar to this project.


Project Title: “Smart Buildings Through Smarter Models”

Dr. Donald Reising, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Mina Sartipi and Dr. T. Daniel Loveless
Other Personnel: Mohammed Fadul, Amee Patel, Jin Cho - Graduate Students

Dr. Donald Reising

Dr. Donald R. Reising, Lead PI

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Daniel Loveless

Dr. T. Daniel Loveless

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: The effort assessed current building energy models and investigated methods by which to improve them using integrated sensor data. The goal was to improve upon the existing model to facilitate real-time, high-fidelity energy usage and efficiency analysis. The existing modeling software, used in this work, requires extensive knowledge of the building’s construction (e.g., materials, dimensions), occupancy, and systems (e.g., HVAC, lighting). The program then returns a projected energy usage and efficiency based upon this model; thus, the accuracy of these projections rely heavily upon the accuracy of the model. However, the sensor data facilitates direct energy usage and efficiency based upon measured values without any knowledge of the building’s construction, occupancy, and systems. This project advanced the SimCenter’s work within the area of Urban Systems in which energy efficiency is a key focus. This work serves as a key preliminary step in the development of a process by which to facilitate real-time, high-fidelity energy usage and efficiency analysis with the goal of improving energy usage across the community.


Project Title: “Smart Urban Connectivity Powered by Mobility-on-Demand Public Transportation and Citywide Public Communications”

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Craig Tanis
Other Personnel: Hector Suarez, Austin Harris - Graduate Students; Robert Barber, Caleb Campbell - Undergraduate Students

Dr. Mina Sartipi

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

UC Foundation Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Dr. Craig Tanis

Dr. Craig Tanis

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: In order to confront unprecedented challenges due to the rapid urbanization, we started a fundamental research on smart urban connectivity. We investigated the methodologies, feasibilities, and potentials of two essential connectivity paradigms for urban futures, i.e., cooperative mobility and citywide wireless communications. We developed a real-time graph for the streets of the city of Chattanooga that can be updated by crowdsourcing, designed personalized routing algorithms that consider features such as health, air quality, and elevation, and investigated a small testbed for advanced wireless communications. The proposed research involved computationally intensive data analytics, graph analytics, simulation and modeling, optimization, operations research, and urban planning. This project advanced the SimCenter’s work within the area of Urban Systems in which transportation and wireless communications are key focuses.


Project Title: Near Real-time Detection of Anomalous Power Consumption in Smart Power Distribution Networks

Dr. Nur Sisworahardjo, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi and Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas
Other Personnel: Akram Saad - Graduate student

Dr. Nur Sisworahardjo

Dr. Nurhidajat Sisworahardjo, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering

 

 

 Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: Through this project, our team members (PI and co-PIs) gained tremendous experience in big data and data analytics and understand the possible utilization that not only limited to power industries but also in other disciplines. Strategic relationship with local industry was strengthened with extensive collaboration with EPB and provide us opportunity to further this collaboration in scholarship activities. From this grant one graduate student received full support for one year to persue his master degree. Through the project, student gained first-hand experience in research and scholarship activities. Student had opportunity to write technical report which leads to paper(s) publication in conference/journal. One paper was submitted and accepted for 2017 International Conference on High Voltage and Power System. Another paper is in preparation for possible publication in conference/journal. This research project also enable researchers at UTC to gain knowledge and experience in anomaly detection in distribution network and gain valuable lessons that can be disseminated to other public power utilities in the region and beyond.


Project Title: “Towards simulation of vertical axis wind turbines in offshore settings”

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI in collaboration with Dr. Abi Arabshahi and Dr. Robert Webster

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi

Research Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Dr. Robert S. Webster

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering

 

 

 

Abstract: The objectives of this project were to take first steps towards the numerical simulation of the flow field surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) in offshore settings. This work was carried out in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory, with Dr. Todd Griffith as the POC. The idea behind the project was to carry out initial validation using data from a VAWT that Sandia had tested in the 70s and 80s. These experiments were carried out onshore and once this validation was completed, a future project (potentially funded through Sandia National Lab/DOE) would have involved transitioning the VAWT to an offshore setting. Almost all commercial wind turbines are three-bladed and of the horizontal axis variety. Consequently, there isn’t a large body of research supporting VAWTs. This became abundantly clear as we looked for detailed geometry for the Sandia VAWT. The first roadblock we ran into was that proprietary airfoil sections were used in the Sandia VAWT. After significant back and forth between the PIs and Dr. Griffith, we were able to obtain the geometry of these airfoil sections. The second roadblock was that these wind turbines were built and tested in the era of “pencil and paper,” i.e., there were no solid models (CAD) available that defined this geometry. Based on various reports we found (some were provided by Dr. Griffith), we reconstructed the geometry as best as we could. Even with this effort, these were significant doubts about the geometry definition and there was no way to verify the same as the test article does not exist anymore. Simulations were carried out based on the geometry we had created, but the results were not satisfactory. Consequently, attempts to get some of these results published were unsuccessful. Given that the simulations of the Sandia VAWT provided less than satisfactory results, we began the search for relatively recent experimental data, which had the added advantage of having well defined geometry. This search clearly showed us the paucity of experimental data for VAWTs. The only experimental dataset that could be found was completely fortuitous as the PI happened to be at a talk at the AIAA Aviation Conference in Denver (June 2017) where they discussed some of the results. The results were focused on details of the flow field as opposed to the power produced by the VAWT. Additional searches after the conference turned up one more dataset that could be of use. After returning from the conference, the geometry was created and simulations have been carried out. However, there was not enough time between the end of the conference and the end date of the project in order to carry out a thorough validation of the flow field. The PIs will continue these simulations over the course of the fall and spring semesters (as time permits) to see if good agreement with experimental data can be obtained. This project, while not very successful, initiated collaboration between the SimCenter and Sandia National Lab. Additionally, it supported the SimCenter’s swimming lane related to “Energy & Environment”. The future for this kind of alternate energy research is uncertain because of the changes in the political climate at the federal level.

 

2015-16 CEACSE Awards

2015-2016 Final Report


Project Title: Numerical Simulation of Airflow in the Small Human Airways

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: We will be working with Dan E. Olson MD PhD DIC who, with over 40 years of experience in this field, will be conducting the experimental work for our validation. The study will involve two primary objectives. The first is the validation of Tenasiusing experimental data from earlier work by Dr. Olson's team. We have been given five experimental models by Dr. Olson to use for this validation. These models are idealized, single bifurcations. The second objective will be the validation of Tenasiusing results from the planned experimental study. The experimental geometry will use a more complex, non-planar, 3-generation airway model. All of these models have been developed by Dr. Olson over the course of his career for the study of pulmonary airflow through generations 5 to 16.


Project Title: Physics Based Prediction of Stability and Control Characteristics Using Sensitivity-Enhanced Reduced Order Models

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Stability and control characterization represents a critical component within the design process as well as offers unique challenges when new systems are integrated into existing platforms. The current basic research is intended to investigate methods to improve the accuracy and the extent of ROMs for high-performance aircraft. Specifically, the proposed research seeks to augment current system identification methods used by the Air Force Seek Eagle Office (AFSEO) with sensitivity-based ROMs. Demonstration and validation of these methods shall be performed on fighter aircraft available to the public domain. Additionally, system identification and data mining are ultimately related techniques, and utilize similar statistical methods. System identification seeks to build mathematical models of systems based on assumed relationships between the model parameters. Data mining sorts through data sets seeking to identify undiscovered patterns or establish unknown relationships between the parameters. Bothapproaches typically use large data sets obtained from various sources.


Project Title: Energy Performance of Residential Building Using Simple-Normalization Based Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis

Dr. Neslihan Alp and Dr. Endong Wang, Lead PIs

Abstract: Identifying detailed building condition meta-factors of energy performance is essential for creating effective residential building energy-retrofitting strategies. Compared to other benchmarking methods offering aggregated general performance indices, nonparametric DEA (data envelopment analysis) is capable of discriminating scale factors from management factors to generate more detailed indicators to better guide retrofitting practices. An improved two-stage DEA energy benchmarking method includes first-stage meta DEA which integrates the common degree day metrics for neutralizing noise energy effects of exogenous climatic variables and censored Tobit regression for advanced efficiency analysis.


Project Title: A Tailored & Computational Data Analytics Approach for Improved Stroke Care in South East US (Southeast TN and North GA)

Dr. Ashish Gupta*, Lead PI

Abstract: In this study, we propose to improve care continuity and care coordination for patients suffering from stroke using data analytics approaches. Statistics are alarming enough to provide a strong motivation for an in-depth data analytics approach for demographically rich data set of stroke patients. Data analytics approaches will be used to find answers to the challenging questions and develop questions that were never explored before for population that is specific to eastern TN region, which is considered to be a part of stroke belt.


Project Title: Thermal Runaway Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries

Dr. Sagar Kapadia*, Lead PI

Abstract: Lithium-Ion batteries offer significant advantages over other types of batteries in terms of weight, power density, and durability. As such, government and private industry all have great interest in developing and using these batteries as a source of power. Unfortunately, Lithium-Ion batteries can also be quite dangerous and have been documented to occasionally catch fire or even explode. In a recent incident at General Motors, a Lithium-Ion battery being developed for automobile applications exploded, sending one person to the hospital, shattering several windows in the laboratory, and blowing out an 8-inch thick door. Clearly, better understanding of the heat transfer within the battery during adverse operating conditions is of importance. During the project period, a one-dimensional thermal abuse model will be developed with eventual goal of extending it into three-dimensions. Such a model is multidisciplinary in nature as it involves simulation of chemical reactions, electrochemistry and heat transfer simultaneously.


Project Title: Continued Development of Higher-Order Adaptive-Overset Dynamic Grid Capability within the FUNSAFE Framework

Dr. James C. Newman III, Lead PI

Abstract: All physics-based simulation technology, regardless of the disciplinary equations considered, require discretization over the field or domain of interest. In terms of mesh resolution requirements, higher-order finite-element discretization methods offer a more rigorous and economic means of obtaining accurate simulations and/or to resolve physics at scales not possible with lower-order schemes. It is recognized that in most physics-based modeling, only localized regions of the domain require higher-order spatial discretization. Therefore, to maximize the benefits of higher-order methods, and to minimize computational costs, h-, p-, and hp-refinement methods must be employed. With regards to simulations that may have large relative motion between multiple bodies, to accommodate the moving domains of interest, overset grid methods have demonstrated distinct advantages over mesh movement strategies. Combining these approaches offer the ability to accurately resolve flow phenomena and interaction that may occur during unsteady moving boundary simulations of real-world systems. To this end, two-dimensional prototype software has been developed to perform adaptive mesh refinement and dynamic overset grid simulations independently. This seed grant is focused on continuing the integration of this technology into the three-dimensional, multidisciplinary/multiphysics, FUNSAFE framework.


Project Title: Next Generation Drag Devices for Trucks and Intermodal (ISO) Containers

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan*, Lead PI

Abstract: A realistic UTC truck model will be developed from a 3D scan and validated against experimental data using the UTC Tenasi flow solver. The model and flow solver will be used to develop the next generation of drag-reduction devices. The long-term goal of this project is to transition the entire product development cycle (product design, analysis, testing & certification) for drag-reduction devices entirely into the computational domain.


Project Title: Simulations of Highly Localized Drug Delivery to the Human Lung

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan*, Lead PI

Abstract: The feasibility of using magnetic fields for localized delivery of nanoparticle-conjugated drugs to the human lung will be studied using CFD simulations. A series of simulations of increasing complexity and realism will be used to define the parameters of the external magnetic field needed to achieve the necessary levels of local concentration while avoiding a systemic overdose. This study will be the first step in demonstrating the overall concept and in determining the general parameters to the solution of the localized drug delivery problem. It is a demonstration of the emerging third way of in silico scientific exploration that precedes, informs and guides further in vitro and in vivo investigations.


Project Title: Multi-modality Heterogeneous Data Analytics for Smart Health

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: Our goal is to provide a patient-centric decision support to improve patient's rehabilitation and to significantly reduce healthcare costs for the post-stroke patient. To achieve this goal, we will investigate (1) data pre-processing to clean the collected data and recover missing ones, (2) online anomaly detection to detect anomalies in daily activities, and (3) predictive analytics for stroke recurrence and rehospitalization. The proposed research will highly contribute to the field of Applied Computational Science and Engineering. Any computational tools related to big data analytics (statistics, applied mathematics, data mining, machine learning) will be exploited. New computational algorithms and data science concepts will be proposed and developed to solve the real-world challenging problems which are deluged with data. Meanwhile, the proposed work will boost the multi-disciplinary research about Computational Health Sciences, Clinical Informatics, and Health Care Analytics.


Project Title: Sensing Communications, and Analysis in Smart Grid

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: Our goal is to provide a sustainable and reliable monitoring infrastructure for sma1t grids while increasing its observability and controllability using sensors. To achieve this goal energy efficient communication scheme needs to be proposed for the smart grid. Data compression, source coding, and dimensionality reduction will be studied. We use both simulated data and real-world data from epb for pattern design and quantitative analysis to justify the novelty and contribution of the proposed research. This problem belongs to computer simulation in science and engineering both development and application of software tools and systems, including mathematical modeling, solution algorithms, analysis, and information technology.


Project Title: Making FUNSAFE Capable of Running on Heterogeneous Architectures

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: Recent advances in computing technology, especially emergence of accelerators have increased computational power tremendously. Making existing software utilize these relatively new technologies is a non-trivial task. FUNSAFE is an unstructured, parallel, high-order, multidisciplinary framework, developed at the SimCenter. During proposed project period, new capabilities will be developed and required modifications will be implemented in FUNSAFE to make it capable of running efficiently on heterogeneous computational architecture. Several capabilities such as parallel domain decomposition, on-the-fly partitioning, parallel computing on accelerators will be added during the proposed grant period. As FUNSAFE represents a multidisciplinary framework, such capability would allow SimCenter researchers to tackle problems in different disciplines (high-order methods, LES, Li-Ion batteries, etc.) that require massively parallel resources and were not addressable in the past.


Project Title: Novel Passive Flow Control Device Concept for Extending Stall Margin in Axial-Flow Compressors

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: Stall margin is an important operating characteristic of an axial-flow machine. It provides a measure of the "breathing room" a turbomachine has when operating at or near its peak efficiency. Stall margin can be improved through either active or passive means; active components usually require additional energy as well as add weight to the system. Therefore, passive mechanisms are usually preferred. The proposed research aims at developing a novel, passive flow control device (the “teeth” concept) that has the potential of improving the stall margin for a core compressor.


Project Title: Computation and Application to Renewable Energy

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI

Abstract: This project aims to establish a new computational framework for general fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. The proposed numerical algorithms will overcome several major limitations in current FSI methods and ensure high accuracy and efficiency in FSI simulation, allowing realistic material representation of immersed solid structures with various shapes and configurations. The algorithm development will be guided and augmented by mathematical analysis. The developed computational methods will be applied to a wide range of FSI problems, particularly in the modeling, simulation and optimization of wave energy, wind energy and other types of renewable energy applications. 

The project represents an interdisciplinary collaboration between applied mathematics and computational engineering at UTC, with computation being the project focus and mathematical analysis making important guidelines and verification. The project will integrate research and graduate education in math and engineering, and will leverage the high-performance computational resources at the SimCenter. The success of this project will advance both the knowledge and application of computational FSI, an increasingly important field of Applied Computational Science and Engineering, and will build a solid base for future research development and sustainable funding support.


Project Title: High-Order Multiscale Finite element Modeling for Acoustics

Dr. Li Wang*, Lead PI

Abstract: The computational analysis for multiscale physics and complex acoustic modeling demands computationally accurate and efficient discretization methods. The present research proposes to develop a hybrid method based on combining high-order discontinuous Galerkin large-eddy simulation and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes for acoustic noise prediction. Special emphasis is placed on investigating an absorbing boundary condition and the interface treatment between LES and RANS regions. This research aims to tackle the current lack of coupling between LES and RANS techniques for turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers and achieve significant gains in both computational accuracy and efficiency. The capabilities resulting from this research are deemed requisite for the UTC SimCenter to be competitive in research and industrial applications of high-fidelity acoustic noise prediction and reduction.


Project Title: Automatic High-Order Mesh Generation for Complex Geometries

Dr. Li Wang*, Lead PI

Abstract: The generation of suitable computational meshes is currently a limiting factor for employing high-order methods to very complex geometries. In this work, we propose a fast, direct and automatic mesh generation method for constructing high quality curved unstructured meshes. The positions of mesh nodes and additional quadrature points for high-order finite element configurations are determined via a physics-based approach aiming to balance the inter-nodal attraction and repulsion forces. The interior mesh is advanced in a layer-by-layer manner coupled with a mesh optimization procedure to ensure the validity and to improve the quality of curved elements. The capabilities resulting from this research are deemed requisite for the UTC SimCenter to be competitive in research and industrial applications of computational mesh generation.

 


Project Title: Computational Simulation of the Purdue 3-stage Experimental Core Compressor

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The opportunity to collaborate with a highly regarded experimental group at Purdue University has presented itself. The personnel at the Purdue Compressor Lab have expressed a desire to work with the SimCenter team anticipating that the computational capabilities of the SimCenter will complement their experimental efforts. Likewise, the chance to work closely with an experienced experimental team whose work is concentrated on turbomachinery flows is a highly desirable situation for the SimCenter in that greater physical insight into these type flow fields is expected. The conducting of computational simulations on existing test machinery and working closely with the experimentalists, with each side taking advantage of the other's strengths is an exciting proposition and sets the stage for potential long-term collaboration on meaningful research projects. Toward this end, the present work is proposed in order to demonstrate both to the Purdue experimentalists and, more importantly, prospective research sponsors that the SimCenter team can perform high-quality simulations of a real test component. The 3-stage axial-flow compressor at Purdue has been used to study in detail numerous aspects of core compressor flows. A series of simulations on the baseline geometry will be performed with the anticipated outcome being that these results will be used in the near future as the SimCenter and Purdue put together larger collaborative proposals in the pursuit of external funding.


Project Title: Computational Simulation of a Blow-down Tunnel for Turbine Testing at Purdue

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The opportunity to collaborate with a highly regarded experimental group at Purdue University has presented itself. The personnel with a newly formed turbine research team there have expressed a desire to work with the SimCenter team anticipating that the computational capabilities of the SimCenter will complement their experimental efforts. Likewise, the chance to work closely with an experienced experimental team whose work is concentrated on turbomachinery flows is a highly desirable situation for the SimCenter in that greater physical insight into these type flow fields is expected. The conducting of computational simulations on existing test machinery and working closely with the experimentalists, with each side taking advantage of the other's strengths is an exciting proposition and sets the stage for potential long-term collaboration on meaningful research projects. Toward this end, the present work is proposed in order to aid the Purdue experimentalists in the evaluation and design of their blow-down turbine facility. This will also demonstrate to prospective research sponsors that the SimCenter team can perform high-quality simulations of a real test component. The blow-down turbine tunnel at Purdue will be used to conduct cold-flow experiments for aerodynamic testing, as well as heated flow experiments to study means of effective blade cooling, which is always of concern in aircraft or power plant turbines. Both 2-D and 3-D simulations of the tunnel will be performed in order to help the turbine experimentalists at Purdue to determine if their facility will perform as expected. A successful CFD simulation of a problem such at this should greatly reduce the costs involved in the development of this facility. It will also lay the groundwork for future collaborations with this team on larger-scale research proposals to external funding agencies. This could be the beginning of a long-term working partnership with the experimentalists at Purdue, which would be advantageous to both parties.


* Faculty member left the university during the reporting period. 

 

2014-15 CEACSE Awards 

2014-2015 Final Report


Project Title: “Extension of Reduced Order Modeling Capabilities for Stability Derivative Evaluation and Computational Design”

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: The proposed research focuses on continuing the development of reduced order models with regards to accuracy and efficiency, as well as augmentation with sensitivity analysis to account for flow and geometric variations within the mathematical model. Motivation for this research is prompted by the fact that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has matured to the point that simulations of complex, nonlinear, time-dependent phenomena for real-world aircraft undergoing maneuvers with active flight controls is possible. This direct simulation approach represents an extremely powerful tool. Unfortunately, to assimilate the required data for control system evaluation and design utilizing highly nonlinear, unsteady CFD simulations is not feasible at this time due to the high computational costs. Therefore, a need exists to develop mathematical models that sufficiently capture the underlying physical phenomena, accurately produces all information needed for system performance evaluation, and are computationally inexpensive. These mathematical models are referred to as reduced order models (ROMs), and many techniques have been developed for unsteady aerodynamics. The majority of these unsteady aerodynamic RO Ms have been developed for the purpose of aeroelastic analysis in flutter and limit-cycle-oscillation prediction. In these applications, however, the flow field parameters such as flight velocity, angle of attack, etc ... remain fixed, and the inflow is assumed uniform. A crucial consequence of ROM construction is that the model is representative for specific flow and geometric parameters. For example, flow variations such as those present in the unsteady air-wake behind a non-stationary ship, for control surface deflections about the base-line high-lift configuration, and for the need to extract stability and control derivatives under time-dependent loading, could render the existing ROM techniques unsatisfactory. Similar scenarios can be described for applications such as disaster mitigation planning whereby perturbations in atmospheric conditions need to be quantified in real-time.


Project Title: “Numerical Simulations of Airflow and Particle Transport in a CT-Based Human Airway Model”

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Respiratory illness is the third leading cause of death in the United States with over 35 million Americans suffering from chronic lung conditions. Numerical simulation of airflow and particle transport during human respiration is a very powerful tool for researchers and medical professionals concerned with all varieties of respiratory illness. Methods established from earlier research will be extended to allow for the simulation of particle transport in the human pulmonary airways. These capabilities will be made available to medical professionals for the purpose of studying airborne contaminant transport and pharmaceutical aerosol delivery.

Work will continue to increase the fidelity of established modeling techniques by development of capabilities to simulate the airway deformation present during respiration. A more extensive validation will be conducted using experimental data from a more complex airway geometry. This test case concerns experimental data for steady and unsteady flow through an extensive six generation CTbased airway model. Further enhancements to the established methods will be examined and incorporated if time and resources permit.


Project Title: “Rupture Predictions for Aneurysms”

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Aneurysms are ticking time bombs within the human circulatory system and are often fatal if ruptured. The aim of this research is to apply CPD methodology to see if one can predict whether an aneurysm will rupture or not. A test case, based on a real aneurysm, has been identified and will be used for evaluating the capabilities of Tenasi for this class of problems. Another aspect of this research will involve collaboration with the UT Graduate School of Medicine in Knoxville on carrying out similar simulations on patientspecific aneurysms.


Project Title: “Utilization of Computational Design Optimization Technology for Sub-Model Parameter Optimization 

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Many physical modeling equations contain terms for which a closure sub-model has to be postulated. A canonical example for high Reynolds number fluid dynamics is a turbulence model. Often times these sub-models contain several empirical constants that are used to calibrate the model for certain known conditions. Unfortunately, these empirically determined values are typically not universal, so as different physical scenarios are simulated these sub-model parameters have to be adjusted in an ad hoc manner to yield physically accurate results. The premise of the proposed work is to use computational design optimization technology that not only optimizes sub-model parameters but also attempts to establish a functional relationship between parameter values and physical conditions.


Project Title: “Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization of Metamaterials”

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson*, Lead PI (Project lead changed during the year to Dr. Li Wang)

Abstract: Electromagnetic simulation capability developed at the SimCenter will be focused on simulating and designing metamaterials. Research to date has allowed SimCenter personnel to greatly improve our own knowledge and capability in electromagnetics and has developed a foundation for metamaterial applications. While the scope of electromagnetic applications is very wide, it is imperative to identify a narrow area of research that may lead to future funding. Because metamaterials are relatively new and they are a very active area of research worldwide, this will form a focus area for electromagnetic simulation at the SimCenter. Technologies developed during this time may also prove vital in other areas such as medical research where electromagnetics plays a ever increasing role.


Project Title: “An Application for on Demand Plume Tracking for Evacuation Planning”

Mr. Ethan Hereth, Lead PI

Abstract: The goal of this proposal is to create an application that quickly generates a localized plume dispersal solution to assist in the evacuation procedure in the event of a toxic plume event. The application will solve the time accurate Euler equations in parallel on an octree generated Cartesian computational grid. The application will be designed to run within minutes on a laptop used by HAZMAT first responders and supply results that would aid in an educatedoptimized evacuation plan.


Project Title: “Research into Tetrahedral Grids Produced From Physics-Based Point Placement”

Mr. C. Bruce Hilbert, Lead PI

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to investigate difficulties in creating tetrahedral grids produced using a given pre-triangulated geometry and points placed inside that geometry via physics-based methods. CEACSE has previously funded research for the development of a tetrahedral mesh generator based upon point insertion and Lawson-style edge flipping. This research has also resulted in promising boundary recovery techniques not present in other mesh generation software.

Unfortunately, this technology does not have a natural way to create points for insertion. However, recent research into physics-based point insertion gives a methodology to create just such a set of points. The approach utilizes inter-nodal attraction and repulsion forces a simplified particle dynamics simulation.

This research will give the SimCenter vital tetrahedral mesh generation technology. Such technology is needed to mesh buffering regions of grids created with other techniques. Additionally, the need for quality tetrahedral meshes alone is always present in the simulation community.


Project Title: “Travel for Presentations and Networking at the Pointwise User Group Meeting”

Mr. C. Bruce Hilbert, Lead PI

Abstract: This proposal is a essentially a request for travel expenses to the Pointwise Users Group meeting in Anaheim, California this October. (This opportunity and just been brought to the attention of the researcher.) The goal would be to present one or more SimCenter research projects at this meeting including work on THEC projects by this researcher as well and work by student(s). Also, this researcher is a member of Pointwise's advisory team which will probably meet immediately before the conference. Finally, this event is an opportunity to meet with many representatives of industry interested in the computational services provided by the SimCenter.


Project Title: “A Robust Network Design in Cognitive Radio”

Dr. Farah Kandah, Lead PI

Abstract: In this proposal, we provide a novel routing scheme for CRNs. Unlike the existing works, the focus of our proposed algorithm is not only one criterion but on balancing between graph routing, interference and power based routing as well as link quality/stability based routing. We provide a multihop routing algorithm that seeks a higher satisfaction ratio in terms of higher delivery ratio for users' requests in the network by managing the interference effect occurred due to overlapping channels between different devices in the network, thus providing a better network capacity through providing a better throughput. Moreover, our algorithm will maintain a robust connectivity in the network by maintaining k-connected topology such that multipath scheme will be deployed to assure data delivery in case of failure in the network. The tradeoffs between this algorithm and the existing routing algorithms in cognitive ratio networks will be studied. This problem belongs to Applied Computational Science and Engineering where an application development, system analysis, and solution algorithms need to be applied to achieve the proposed scheme.


Project Title: “Exascale Computing Leadership Class Machines Using FUNSAFE Framework”

Dr. Sagar Kapadia, Lead PI

Abstract: Leadership class computing represents the inevitable next phase in physics-based simulation software development. It is envisioned that this enormous leap in computational capacity will spur scientific discoveries as well as afford sufficient resources to permit transformative engineering designs to be realized. Currently, most simulation software utilizes message-passing protocols (such as MPI, OpenMP, PVM) to enable parallel computing on shared or distributed memory clusters. To date, only a limited number of research-based simulation software exists that can utilize these leadership class machines to their full potential. Modifications and additional development within existing simulation software will be required for these emerging systems. The current proposal seeks to extend the FUNSAFE framework, and to develop the supporting software tools needed, to efficiently utilize leadership class machines in order to address multidisciplinary and multiphysics problems of scientific and engineering significance.


Project Title: “Harnessing the Power of Big Data in Arial Network Authentication and Medical Analysis and Predictions”

Dr. Joseph Kizza, Lead PI

Abstract: We live in a world driven by digital data. In the next few years, most decisions will be supposed by and based on solutions from big and streaming data processes. To put this in perspective, all the digital data created, replicated, and consumed in a single year will about double every two years from now until 2020 based on a recent report of the digital universe. Advanced analytics has become a key basis of competition, underpinning new waves of productivity growth, innovation, and consumer surplus, which are essential to maintain advantages in the face of global competition. One of the approaches of using big data to find new solutions to outstanding, sometimes unsolvable problems, is to revisit these old problems driven by big data concepts with new big data solution techniques. In our study, we will revisit two old problems and try to apply known big data solutions and also try to develop new big data algorithms, where possible in Airborne Networks Authentication and Medical Analysis and predictions. Our solutions, especially those in airborne networks, will significantly minimize the challenging USAF aerial vehicle security problems and the skyrocketing medical problems.


Project Title: “High-Order Adaptive-Overset Dynamic Grid Development”

Dr. James Newman, Lead PI

Abstract: All physics-based simulation technology, regardless of the disciplinary equations considered, require discretization over the field or domain of interest. In terms of mesh resolution requirements, higher-order finite-element discretization methods offer a more rigorous and economic means of obtaining accurate simulations and/or to resolve physics at scales not possible with lower-order schemes. It is recognized that in most physicsbased modeling, only localized regions of the domain require higher-order spatial discretization. Therefore, to maximize the benefits of higher-order methods, and to minimize computational costs, h-, p-, and hp-refinement methods must be employedWith regards to simulations that may have large relative motion between multiple bodies, to accommodate the moving domains of interest, overset grid methods have demonstrated distinct advantages over mesh movement strategies. Combining these approaches offer the ability to accurately resolve flow phenomena and interaction that may occur during unsteady moving boundary simulations of real-world systems. To this end, twodimensional prototype software has been developed to perform adaptive mesh refinement and dynamic overset grid simulations independently. This seed grant is focused on integrating and extending this technology into the three-dimensional, multidisciplinary/multiphysics, FUNSAFE framework.


Project Title: “A Prototype Disaster Management System for Hazardous Material Releases”

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: A prototype Disaster Management System (DMS) capable of generating mitigation scenarios for a toxic gas release event in an urban environment will be developed , tested and demonstrated. It will combine high-resolution CFD solutions with fast particle simulations to quickly and accurately predict the plume footprint along with suggested evacuation and traffic rerouting strategies.


Project Title: “Algorithms for Index Case Identification and Exposure Prediction in Infectious Disease Epidemics”

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: A synthetic dataset generated by an agent-based epidemic simulation will be used to develop and test algorithms for identifying the index case and predicting exposure probabilities based in time-stamped location information. The algorithms and software will be developed in a problem-agnostic framework so that it can be used in other domains such as forensics, risk analysis and customer tracking.


Project Title: “Standards for Numerical Simulations of Drag Reduction Devices for Class 8 Trucks”

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: This project aims to develop standards for the use of CFD in the certification of drag reduction devices for Class 8 trucks. These standards will be part of an EPA certification process. It is expected that the SimCenter will collaborate with ORNL in this process.


Project Title: “Improvement in the Thermodynamic Performance of Steam Turbines

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: The performance of a power-generating steam turbine is strongly dependent on the level of vacuum pressure that can be obtained at the exit of the turbine. This level is dependent on the performance of the condenser, which in turn can b~ affected by atmospheric conditions. This research will explore an alternative mechanism for this cooling by employing a nozzle just downstream of the turbine. This nozzle should reduce the pressure and condense out a lot of the water. If this concept is successful, the size of the condenser can be reduced or it can even be eliminated.


Project Title: “Mitigating Wind Effect on Air Cooled Condensers”

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: A light wind (about 5 mph) can have an impact on the performance of an air cooled condenser (ACC). The reduction in the performance of the condenser directly impacts the plant efficiency. The aim of this project is to harness the wind into charging a plenum that can be created using screens below the ACC. The fans can draw from the relatively quiescent air in the plenum. The project will carry out simulations of a typical ACC under various wind conditions (with and without the plenum) and the effects of the porosity of the screens on the performance will be determined.


Project Title: “Combined Spectral Element/Pseudo-Spectral Method for Complex Three-Dimensional Geometries”

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: One of the major roadblocks to the application of spectral methods to practical engineering problems has been the inability of these methods to handle complex geometry. Most spectral algorithms have been written for and applied to either Cartesian or analytically defined geometries. In this approach, the discretization consists entirely of hexahedral elements and a Chebyshev/Fourier spectral formulation. However, it may not always be possible to model a complicated geometry with only hexahedral elements. The unique approach proposed in this work is to combine hp-spectral element methods with pseudo-spectral methods to simulate complex geometries. The idea is to use hp-spectral elements to resolve the complex geometrical surfaces and pseudo-spectral elements elsewhere. Both element types must accommodate curved boundaries and be of "arbitrary" order.


Project Title: “Towards Accurate and Efficient Hybrid RANS/LES Modeling for Acoustic Noise Prediction Using High-Order Multi-scale Finite Elements”

Dr. Li Wang, Lead PI

Abstract: The current research proposes to advance a dynamic hybrid RANS/LES method for broadband acoustic noise prediction using high-order discontinuous-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin finite-element schemes. The hybrid modeling of turbulence, which combines RANS and LES techniques, aims to fill the current gap between RANS and LES computations for flows at high Reynolds numbers and achieve significant gains in both computational accuracy and efficiency. The capabilities resulting from this research are deemed requisite for the UTC SimCenter to be competitive in research and industrial applications of broadband acoustic noise prediction and reduction.


Project Title: “Large Scale Simulation of Low-Pressure Compression System of the Energy Efficient Engine (E3)”

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The Energy Efficient Engine, or E3 for short, was developed as part of a 10-year long research effort between NASA and the two primary U. S. aero-engine manufacturers (GE and P&W). A more general background was given in a CEACSE white paper last year; this was approved as grant number R041302164. That grant is nearing completion and was tasked with doing a preliminary validation of the fan stage, as well as boost stage, which is used to supply the core compressor. Results from the current grant have been encouraging and serve as the inspiration for this proposal. In order to keep the problem size manageable, the preliminary validation study that is currently underway changed blade/vane counts on all rotor-stator rows, except for that of the fan rotor. The result was a single passage for the fan and stator in the bypass duct, with two passages for the boost stage rotor and stator and the stator vanes at the entrance of the duct leading to the high-pressure core compressor. The current grid contains approximately 9.34e+06 nodes. That which is being proposed here is, in some regards, a repetition of the current research, except the proposed work will include at least a quarter-wheel (i.e., a 90-degree sector) and will be a sizeable problem, given the current grid size mentioned in the previous paragraph. The bypass duct stator vane count would need to be reduced by two, but all other blade/vane counts would be unmodified, since these values are all divisible by four. If time and resources allow, a half-wheel simulation could be performed with no modifications to blade/vane counts. This is the first time that a problem of this magnitude has been attempted by the SimCenter. It involves a fan stage and low-pressure compressor stage operating essentially in parallel, with the additional requirement that the core flow and bypass flow each be "throttled" to match their respective nominal mass flow rates, as well as the bypass ratio. To our knowledge, there have been few, if any, Navier-Stokes simulations of a problem of this size, since the computational requirements are prohibitive for most researchers. Therein lies the purpose for the proposed work; that is, a successful simulation of this sort would be a very good demonstration of the SimCenter's capabilities to the outside community.


Project Title: “Extending Stall Margin of Axial-Flow Turbomachines Through the Use of Passive Flow Control Devices”

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The use of flow control devices and mechanisms is an ever-increasing area of interest within the overall fluid-dynamics community. Vortex generators are passive devices that have long been used to "energize the boundary layer" by increasing the amount of local turbulence, thus helping to prevent flow separation; these devices have been used for both external and internal flow applications. Passive flow-control devices have also been tested quite extensively in the form of so-called casing treatments to reduce the losses in axial-flow turbomachinery components of air-breathing propulsion systems, primarily in fans and compressors. One form of casing treatment that has been looked at computationally by SimCenter personnel is that of circumferential grooves cut into the casing. These grooves are a circumferential channel which are located radially outward from the tip of any given rotor blade. This channel allows for some of the fluid that would normally contribute to the strength of the tip vortex to be "pumped" into the channel, thus offering some relief with regards to the influence of the tip vortex. The tip vortex emanating from the rotor blade's leading edge is considered a "weak link" in the onset of aerodynamic instabilities, which may result in the phenomena of rotating stall and/or surge. The computational investigation of the impact of circumferential casing grooves on the performance of an axial-flow fan stage, known as the SDT2-R4, was carried out by a SimCenter master's-level graduate student. Other configurations that were looked at during the course of this investigation include a solid circumferential "ring" that was attached to the casing and protruded inward toward the rotor blade. The first configuration, Cr, placed the ring slightly upstream of the blade's leading edge, while the second configuration, C2, was located slightly downstream of the blade's trailing edge. The C1 configuration resulted in a noticeable decrease in fan performance; given that the leading-edge tip vortex is a source of instability, this result was not surprising. The Cconfiguration was relatively neutral regarding fan performance, since neither an appreciable increase nor decrease in performance was noticed [ 1]. A third configuration, C3, was tried and is a relatively simple variation of C2• In this case, rather than being a solid circumferential ring, gaps were "cut" into the ring through which the tip-region flow could pass. The gaps give the solid parts of the ring the appearance of "teeth" that might be found on a sprocket or some sort of gear mechanism. The C3 configuration was found to provide a noticeable extension in the stall margin for the fan when operating at 100% speed. The primary question that is to be addressed by the proposed research is this: what about the fluid physics of the C3 configuration allows for this apparent increase in stall margin, and, therefore, aerodynamic stability? Additionally, can this configuration offer any improvement in efficiency when at a stable operating point, say near the design point?


Project Title: “Fully Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Methods for Viscous the Energy Efficient Engine Flow Simulations”

Dr. Robert Wilson*, Lead PI

Abstract: To develop a next generation, fully conservative semi-Lagrangian method for the solution of viscous Navier-Stokes equations with multiple phases. Such an approach has the potential to eliminate truncation errors due to discretization of the convective term, alleviate time step restrictions, increase robustness, reduce sensitivity due to element type, and guarantee conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, particularly for multiphase flows.


Project Title: “Development of Free Surface Interface Models for Higher-Order Finite Element Methods

Dr. Robert Wilson*, Lead PI

Abstract: To develop and implement multiphase interface models into the existing higher-order finite element FUNSAFE framework. An interface capturing approach will be used, which is capable of simulating unsteady interfaces with complex topological changes such as breaking waves, bubble merging, and drop formation. Such a capability would allow high-fidelity simulations of free surface flows around ships and structures, environmental flows in rivers and oceans, bubbly flows, and medical applications.


Project Title: “Development of a Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Approach for Hydrodynamic Application

Dr. Robert Wilson*, Lead PI

Abstract: To leverage past research on hydrodynamic applications and recent progress in the development of an in-house fluid structure interaction (FSI) capability for the Tenasi flow solver. The proposed research is part of a multi-year effort for the development of a general purpose, fully-coupled FSI capability. In the first year of the this project, simulation of a FSI interaction for an offshore application was performed. Demonstration of a general purpose multidisciplinary approach for hydrodynamic fluid-structure interactions will greatly enhance future efforts to secure funding from various research agencies. In addition, efforts to market and distribute the Tenasi flow solver through the SimCenter Enterprises division will be vastly improved with this technology.


Project Title: “Securing Internet of Things by Capability-Based Access Control

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Abstract: We will have 50 billion connected Internet of Things (Io Ts) by 2020 based on prediction from CISCO. Security of the IoTs draws increasingly attention because they are made cheaply with very low margins, and the companies that make them don't have the expertise to secure them. This project proposes a capability based access control system for enterprises and individuals to manage their own access control to services and information. The proposed mechanism will support rights delegation, a more sophisticated access control customization. The implementation of this project will secure user application, data, and privacy in the current trend of enabling big data through little data.


Project Title: Big Data Solution for Improved Mental Health Management

Dr. Ashish Gupta, Lead PI

Abstract: Team worked with a portion of data provided by Siskin that included functional independence measure (FEM) scores of patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI).


Project Title: Spectral and Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast for Wireless Networks

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: Focus on investigating the multicast algorithm that uses CS for both at the source and intermediate hops on the paths from source to the destitutions.


Project Title: “Trust Propagation and Distrust (Rumor/Second Hand Trust) in Web of Trust (WOT) and Airborne Networks Authentication

Dr. Joseph Kizza, Lead PI

Abstract: To focus on trust relationships in both a web of trust {WOT) and trust in airborne networks. In particular, we are interested in finding new models and new algorithms that will give us a better understanding and ultimately better authentication of entities in these networks.


*Faculty Member left the university during the reporting period. 

 

2013-14 CEACSE Awards

2013-2014 Final Report


Project Title: Development of Reduced Order Modeling Capabilities with Applications to Stability Derivative Evaluation and Computational Design

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has matured to the point that simulations of complex, nonlinear, time-dependent phenomena for real-world aircraft undergoing maneuvers with active flight controls is possible. This direct simulation approach represents an extremely powerful tool. Unfortunately, to assimilate the required data for control system evaluation and design utilizing highly nonlinear, unsteady CFD simulations is not feasible at this time due to the high computational costs. This presents a need to develop mathematical models that sufficiently capture the underlying physical phenomena, accurately produces all information needed for system performance evaluation, and are computationally inexpensive. These mathematical models are referred to as reduced order models (RO Ms), and many techniques have been developed for unsteady aerodynamics. The majority of these unsteady aerodynamic ROMs have been developed for the purpose of aeroelastic analysis in flutter and limit-cycle-oscillation prediction. In these applications, however, the flow field parameters such as flight velocity, angle of attack, etc ... remain fixed, and the inflow is assumed uniform. A crucial consequence of ROM construction is that the model is representative for specific flow and geometric parameters. For example, flow variations such as those present in the unsteady air-wake behind a non-stationary ship, for control surface deflections about the base-line high-lift configuration, and for the need to extract stability and control derivatives under time-dependent loading, could render the existing ROM techniques unsatisfactory. Similar scenarios can be described for applications such as disaster mitigation planning whereby perturbations in atmospheric conditions need to be quantified in real-time. Hence, the proposed research focuses on developing sensitivity-enhanced ROMs to account for flow and geometric variations within the mathematical model.


Project Title: Numerical Simulation of Flow Structure and Transport/Deposition of Particles in Pulmonary Airways

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: High fidelity, unsteady flow field solutions of cyclic inspiratory and expiratory airflow within the lung are of great value to medical professionals for the study, treatment, and prevention of pathological respiratory conditions. Although most previous research has emphasized the significance and benefits of airflow modeling very few attempts have been made to address the inherent unsteadiness of pulmonary airflow. We intend to work on enhancement of present pulmonary airflow modeling by incorporating computationally complex and expensive techniques to address the unsteady nature of breathing. The primary focus of this work will be time dependent boundary conditions for both inflow/outflow boundaries and viscous boundaries.


Project Title: Electromagnetic Simulations for Metamaterials and Frequency-Selective Surface

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI 

Abstract: Development of electromagnetic simulation capability using high-order spatial discretization and implicit time stepping. Application focus area on metamaterials and frequency-selective surfaces. However, frequency-dependent materials have wide range of applicability such as biological applications. Implicit time stepping and parallel computing will allow individual elements of matamaterials to be modeled to eliminate the requirement of periodicity that is typically used.


Project Title: An Exploration of the Efficacy of HUGG Style Meshes on Turbo-Machinery

Mr. C. Bruce Hilbert, Lead PI

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to investigate the efficacy of the grids created by Dr. Steve Karman's software MBHUGG (Multi-Block Hierarchical Unstructured Grid Generator) when used to discretize internal flow geometries, in particular turbo-machinery. Experience suggests that structured meshes better capture features of internal flows even when run with unstructured codes. The presumption is that grid alignment plays a large role in this phenomenon and MBHUGG meshes can be aligned with and adapted to these flow features. Also, as was clearly demonstrated by our experience with SimCenter Enterprises Project 1, there is clearly a need to quickly create and adapt meshes for turbo-machinery.


Project Title: Refactoring and Optimization of the Tenasi Tool Suite Code

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Abstract: The current Tenasi-SWC solver allows for the simulation of portions of the ocean, lakes, and rivers. A unique aspect of the formulation is that wetting and drying of ground topography is naturally accounted for without ad hoc numerical modifications to the algorithm. Given this capability, flooding scenarios can be considered; for example, a river overflowing its banks due to an irregular precipitation event. Often, contaminants are introduced into the water during these events due to the flooding of industrial or municipal sites. The current solver allows for the prediction of the propagation and dispersion of such contaminants. However, a simple 2D Cartesian mesh is used, in UTM coordinates, to cover the area affected. 

While this uniform structured approach is reasonable, it suffers from requiring an excessive number of points in areas that are not of interest (i.e., areas where it is known that water will not reach). Also, the overall domain is required to be rectangular, which can be constraining in certain circumstances. Extending the solver into the unstructured realm would allow the practitioner to more aptly place points where they are really needed, and therefore reduce the overall cost of the algorithm, this makes quickturnaround times possible, as well as enabling the solver to be used in a desktop environment.


Project Title: Quality of Service Assurance using GENI

Dr. Farah Kandah, Lead PI

Abstract: In this proposal, we provide a network performance enhancement to support a near real-time data transmission using multi-path routing scheme. In this proposed work we will adopt the Global Environment for etwork Innovations (GE I) including its deep programmability of compute and network resources to create at scale network infrastructure that will provide a real network performance feedback to be used in supporting future emergency or any real-time data transmission scenarios. The tradeoffs between this algorithm and the existing multi-path algorithms in terms of delay and throughput optimization will be studied. This problem belongs to Applied Computational Science and Engineering where an application development, system analysis, and solution algorithms need to be applied to achieve the proposed scheme.


Project Title: Numerical Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Dr. Sagar Kapadia, Lead PI

Abstract: Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have gained prominence as energy storage devices due to their high energy density, power density, and reversibility. One of the main challenges in the design of lithium-ion batteries is safety hazards associated with the development of thermal hot spots and resulting thermal runaway. Our goal is to develop a 3D lithium-ion batte1y model to solve a coupled system of electrochemical-thermal equations using finite element method. A 3D model will provide quantitative information on the mechanisms affecting thermal behavior of the cell. By developing the model general enough, we will study the impact of cell geometty, current collector thickness, and current collector tab placement on the cell's thermal characteristics.


Project Title: Molecular Dynamics-Based Point Generation and Radial Basis Flow Solver

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Abstract: Multi-body simulations are challenging, even with unstructured meshes. The meshes either have to allow for point movement and/or re-tessellation to produce a valid mesh. The flow solver has to also account for point movement and re-tessellation. An alternative approach is to use a "meshless" method. Molecular dynamics equations can be used to distribute points in 3D about the bodies. The distribution of points can be controlled tln·ough manipulation of the charge field. These distributions are very smooth and isotropic. A meshless flow solver can be used to solve the Euler equations on the point cloud. Radial-basis functions can be used with the point cloud and solution variables to integrate the Euler equations in time. The combined point generator and meshless solver will allow rapid and easy simulation of multi-body problems, such as store separation or aircraft landing on a carrier.


Project Title: High-Order Space-Time Approach

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: An algorithm for the numerical solution of partial differential equations based on a simultaneous space and time discretization has recently been developed. Several canonical test cases have been investigated for simple ordinary and partial differential equations. A two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes simulation of a KelvinHelmholtz instability has also been performed. The results reveal that under certain circumstances for a given absolute error, the space-time algorithm reaches the prescribed tolerance using fewer operations than traditional and implicit Runge-Kutta schemes.


Project Title: Technology Development for Multiphysics Simulation,  Sensitivity, and Design

Dr. James C. Newman III, Lead PI

Abstract: The current research proposes to address a lack of basic capabilities required to enable multiphysics simulation, sensitivity analysis, and design optimization within SitnCenter developed software. These capabilities are deemed requisite in order for SimCenter and UTC personnel to be competitive in a multitude of application areas. Although related through intended applications, this seed grant is focused on two distinct capabilities. Namely, various extensions to the structural solver within the FUNSAFE framework and for overlapped grid technology for higher-order finite element methodologies.


Project Title: Transition Modeling for Improved Heat Transfer Computations for Turbomachinery

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Abstract: Modeling turbulence successfully is vital for accurate simulations. Mainstream methods of modeling turbulence are well-tested on and widely accepted for attached and separated flows. Recent advances in state-of-the-art turbulence modeling have been applied to the Tenasi unstructured algorithm with excellent results. However, the Tenasi algorithm lacks the ability to model the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and correctly modeling transition is known to have a significant impact on the accuracy of drag, efficiency, and heat transfer predictions for turbomachinery applications.


Project Title: Incompressible Multi-Species Flow Regime with Total Energy Conservation

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Abstract: The Incompressible-Temperature Flow Regime in Tenasi offers the ability to simulate buoyancy-driven, low-speed flows at a constant and single value of density. Expanding the equation set to include a variable density and to conserve total energy instead of only internal energy opens the door to addressing a wide array of topics such as the transport of multiple species with chemical reactions, humidity, fire combustion and propagation, and stratified atmospheric flows. Multiple models are being evaluated, and the model offering the greatest extension to the Tenasi will be implemented and validated.


Project Title: Design of a Coronary Stent for Reduced Failure Rates

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Abstract: There are millions of coronary stents implanted worldwide to open blocked arteries. Failure rates had been as high as 20- 30%. The recent introduction of drug eluting stents has significantly reduced the failure rate to about 10%. The failures have been mainly due to restenosis, which is due to the blocking of stented arteries by the disposition of plaque on artery walls. It is recognized in some quarters that there are two important physical processes involved in the onset of restenosis, one due to artery injury and associated inflammation caused by the implant of oversized stents and the other due to generation of low levels of wall shear stress (WSS) caused by the blunt wire cross sections employed in all commercially available stents. There are two communities involved in efforts to reduce the failure rates of implanted stents, one populated by Coronary Interventionist who assume the failures are solely due to arterial injury and that seek to reduce failure rates through a regime of drug therapy. The other group seeks to understand the role of hemodynamics of blood flow through a stented artery through the application of numerical simulation via CFD. The interventional community seems to be completely unaware of the possible role of blood flow dynamics in stent failures. In the SimCenter’s continuing efforts to reduce failures rates of implanted stents, a general CFD approach has been developed to understand the hemodynamic mechanisms involved in restenosis formation. Unfortunately, the application of CFD simulations over the past decade has been retarded by the presence of Non-Newtonian viscosity effects and the lack of validatedNon-Newtonian viscosity models. The lack of such models is due to complete absence of experimental techniques for the measurement of WSS. The SimCenter has developed a general CFD based approach that has the potential to address the deficiencies of the state-of-the-art.  The SimCenter approach is based on the employment of streamlined stent wire cross–sections to eliminate regions of low WSS and a novel way to eliminate Non-Newtonian viscosity effects.


Project Title: Validation and Application of the Tenasi Particle Module

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: The Tenasi particle will be validated for particle laden flows involving bio-aerosols, inhalants and sub 10-micron particles (PMl 0) in the urban environment. The validated code will be used to study problems such as airborne pathogen transport in hospitals, penetration of medical inhalants, pathogens and pollutants into the human airways and control of PMlO and PM2.5 in the urban environment.


Project Title: Communication and Data processing Tools for Automated Fall Risk Assessment System

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: We plan to present a novel approach to wearable sensor-based assessment of fall risk for post stroke patients. The goal is to use ine1tial measurement unit to automate the fall risk estimation of the functional reach test. In this proposal, we present the current stage of our system, including the preliminary results from our proposed signal processing tools for measuring the patient's balance. The proposed system is delivered as an application (App) running on our hardware system consisting of two bluetooth low energy modular sensor devices and a smart phone. This problem belongs to Applied Computational Science and Engineering encompassing both development and application of software tools and systems, including motion sensing, solution algorithms, analysis, and information technology.


Project Title: Data Acquisition and Communication in Smart Grid Networks

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: Our goal is to provide a sustainable, fault-tolerant, and reliable monitoring infrastructure for sma1t grids. To achieve this goal, scalable and reliable communication scheme needs to be proposed for the smart grid's three network layers: i) HAN, BAN, and IAN, ii) NAN, and iii) WAN. Each of these networks have its unique requirements and constrains on bandwidth, latency, and reliability. Therefore, different communication schemes need to be designed for each network. In this proposal we focus on the WAN, i.e., the power transmission/ generation premise. This problem belongs to Applied Computational Science and Engineering encompassing both development and application of software tools and systems, including mathematical modeling, solution algorithms, analysis, and information technology.


Project Title: High-Order Methods for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

Drs. Li Wang and Kyle Anderson, Lead PIs

Abstract: The proposed research develops high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and Petrov-Galerkin (PG) methods for solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The work investigates the incorporation of a modified Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model with the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations that are both discretized using a high-order DG/PG approach. In the context of high-order methods, curved surface mesh is generated through the use of a CAPRI mesh parameterization tool, followed by a linear elasticity solver to determine the interior mesh deformations. Research will further be conducted for improving the robustness and efficiency of these methodologies, extending the codes for shocked and high-speed flows, and investigating large eddy simulations (LES). This project will advance the capabilities of the high-order methods in the computational simulation of a wide class of practical problems.


Project Title: Aero-elastic Study of the Turbofan Stage for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3)

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) project, which was heavily funded by NASA and managed from NASA-Glenn (Lewis) through the late 1970's and early 80's, resulted in an entire new engine. This engine was not to serve as a commercial-ready power plant, but it was to be a proof-of-concept demonstration of new technologies that could be applied to a new generation of commercial engines. The new technologies were especially pertinent to the fan, compressor, and turbine sections. SimCenter has access to the geometry of the entire compression system of the E3 engine, as well as supporting documentation in the form of contractor reports. Even though turbomachinery computations have been regularly conducted by the SimCenter over the years, this project will focus on studying the aero-elastic behavior of the blades of the fan stage. This is a relatively new area of research for the SimCenter, but it is one of great importance, since the blade dynamics must ultimately be accounted for in addition to the aerodynamic performance of the overall machine. The focus area will likely be that of using the Campbell Diagram provided in the contractor report as a guide for matching, via Tenasi and its structural module, the "lower" resonance modes (e.g., 1st and 2nd bending, 1st torsional) with those shown on the Campbell Diagram for the fan. It is felt that this will serve as a good case for testing the aero-elastic capabilities of Tenasi, as well as providing supporting material for proposal(s) to external funding sources.


Project Title: Validation Simulations of the Turbofan and Boost Stages of the Energy Efficient Engine (E3)

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) project, which was heavily funded by NASA and managed from NASA-Glenn (Lewis) through the late 1970's and early 80's, resulted in an entire new engine. This engine was not to serve as a commercial-ready power plant, but it was to be a proof-of-concept demonstration of new technologies that could be applied to a new generation of commercial engines. The new technologies were especially pertinent to the fan, compressor, and turbine sections. SimCenter has access to the geometry of the entire compression system of the E3 engine, as well as supporting documentation in the form of contractor reports. Even though turbomachinery computations have been regularly conducted by the SimCenter over the years, this is project will involve components that are not currently in our experience base: the fan contains a mid-span shroud ring that provides structural integrity, but it will likely hamper the aerodynamic performance to some degree; there is a single "boost" stage just downstream of the fan, and inboard of the splitter plate that separates the core flow from the bypass flow, which turns at a different speed than the fan; part of the flow inboard of the splitter plate goes into the core, and part of it returns to the bypass flow; finally, outlet guide vanes located at the aft of the splitter plate are included to decrease the swirl component of the bypass flow. The sliding interface technology within Tenasi has been recently applied to turbofan stage and has been shown to work quite well [1, 2]. Only a single interface was required in those reference cases, whereas at least 3 or more will be needed for this case. The validation of the fan and boost stages is required in order to provide increased confidence and experience with these type flow problems, as well as to lay the groundwork for possible follow-on research.


Project Title: Solver Enhancements for Simulation of Objects in Dynamic Contact Using Combined Immersed Boundary and Overset Grid Methods

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Abstract: To leverage recent progress in the implementation of immersed boundary and overset grid capabilities to simulate flow fields for objects with intermittent dynamic contact. The proposed research represents the final step towards development of a computational approach for the Tenasi flow solver for multiple objects in relative motion and close proximity, where their solid surfaces may come into contact for a portion of the unsteady simulation. Example applications include rolling vehicle tires, vehicle collisions, flapping of heart values, and store launch/recovery.


Project Title: Development of a Fully-Coupled Fluid Structure Interaction Approach for Hydrodynamic Applications

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Abstract: To leverage past research on hydrodynamic applications and recent progress in the development of an in-house fluid structure interaction (PSI) capability for the Tenasi flow solver. The proposed research is part of a multi-year effort for the development of a general purpose, fully-coupled PSI capability. In the first year of the this project, simulation of a PSI interaction for an offshore application was performed. Demonstration of a general purpose multidisciplinary approach for hydrodynamic fluid-structure interactions will greatly enhance future efforts to secure funding from various research agencies. In addition, efforts to market and distribute the Tenasi flow solver through the SimCenter Enterprises division will be vastly improved with this technology.


Project Title: Arbitrary Lagragian-Eulerian Method for Blast Simulations

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of the proposed research is the development and implementation of an arbitrary Lagragian-Eulerian method in the Tenasi flow solver. Example applications include simulations of fluid-structure problems with large material deformations, detonation/blast problems with tracking of subsequent shrapnel, vehicle collisions, and coupling of multi-physics fields with multi-materials.


Project Title: Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Genes Associated with Diseases at Higher Rates in African Americans

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Abstract: To initiate an innovative line ofresearch on health disparityidentifying genes associated with diseases at higher rates in African Americans through integrated bioinformatics analysis of heterogeneous data sets. We will first identify candidate genes by computational scan of polymorphism in the human genome, and then evaluate their pathogenic significance through biological network and pathway analysis. One strength of our proposal is our insight base on the evolutionary theory of tradeoff - gene variants under recent selections are often beneficial at young ages but would lead to health risk at old ages. Another strength lies in our integration of evolutionary genomics with biological networks and pathways. This proposal will lay the ground work to better harness the power of human genome to predict group of people at higher risk for certain diseases through computational analysis and prediction.


Project Title: Zero-based Knowledge Authentication in Aerial Networks

Ms. Katherine Winters, Lead PI

Abstract: Network security has become a necessity in protecting sensitive resources in an increasingly volatile environment. Thus, the need for identification is a requirement for allowing secure access to a network.  However, there are instances where presenting identifying information is undesirable. In cases where anonymity is important or where secret information could be compromised, zero-knowledge protocols provide a solution to allow an entity to prove their credibility without having to give any credentials [1]. This protocol is not an absolute proof, but a probabilistic one. This means that complete trust can never be established; instead, a threshold must be satisfied before an entity is authenticated.  Under the most common forms of network authentication, supplicants are required to exchange credentials.  This exchange requires the entity seeking authorization into a network to reveal its identity.  If the entity seeking authentication is static, then the length of time it takes to prove authorization is often unimportant; however, if the entities seeing the authentication are moving this poses a significant problem.  A form of authentication for these types of situations which operates more quickly and efficiently is required.  One such form authentication currently being considered is a Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) method of authentication. Rather than providing any credentials or secret information, a rigid protocol is utilized to prove that the entity seeking authorization should be granted access to the network.   However, in the case of an airborne entity seeking authentication into an aerial network, the window of time during which authentication can be established may be very short. In such cases, it is important that enough trust can be established to grant authentication quickly enough without compromising the security of the network.  This proposal will focus on an innovative approach to ensuring quick, but secure, ZKP network authentication through a method of intelligently scaled trust propagation.


Project Title: Undergraduate Research Assistantship Program in Computational Science and Engineering

Dr. Louie Elliott, Lead PI

Abstract: The short term goal of this project is to establish an Undergraduate Research Assistantship program in computational science and engineering for students at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. The long term goals are to integrate SimCenter’s computing resources with undergraduate programs in computational science and to build a direct pathway for students at UTC to pursue graduate degrees at the SimCenter. As both a UTC and SimCenter graduate, I am in a uniquely qualified position to implement this program. 

The project will take the form of a special topic research class in which students will use a newly acquired 12 processor cluster LittleFE (Figure 1) to learn parallel scientific computing. I was awarded this cluster at SuperComputing 2012 as part of the HPC Educator’s Program through funding by the National Science Foundation.

The class would focus on simulation and modeling, and could include topics on numerical methods, grid generation, optimization, with focus on large-scale parallel computing. Research areas are yet to be determined, but may include Fuel Cell Design and Optimization.


Project Title: Stent Design Proposal Preparation

Dr. Robert Melnik, Lead PI

Abstract: To develop and submit a stent proposal to NIH.


Project Title: Rapid Generation of Animations from Tenasi Simulations

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: To develop a tool that can generate animations of transient Tenasi simulations with minimal user effort. 

 

2012-13 CEACSE Awards

2012-2013 Final Report


Project Title: “Numerical Simulation of Respiratory Flow Patterns Within Human Lung”

Dr. Abdollah (Abi) Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: Accurate knowledge of flow in human airways is essential to understand respiratory physiology and pathophysiology. It is a way to assess ventilation and particle deposition. Furthermore, this knowledge supports the improvement of lung pathology diagnosis, the refinement of respiratory assistance, an in-depth understanding of the O2-CO2 gas exchange, and inhaled toxic material deposition, as well as optimal drug-aerosol targeting to combat lung and systemic diseases. These are challenging tasks because of the complex airways geometries, three-phase flow phenomena, fluid-structure interactions, cell mechanics, and heat and species mass transfer. One of the key challenges for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of human lung airflow is the sheer size and complexity of the complete, multiscale geometry of the bronchopulmonary tree. Since 3-D CFD simulations of the full airway tree are currently intractable, researchers have proposed reduced geometry models in which multiple airway paths are truncated downstream of the first few generations. This research investigates a recently proposed method for closing the CFD model by application of physiologically correct boundary conditions at truncated outlets. A realistic, reduced geometry model of the lung airway based on CT data will be constructed up to generation 18, including extrathoracic, bronchi, and bronchiole regions. A multi-component flow simulation will be carried out using Tenasi, and in-house CFD code, whereby the Navier-Stokes equations are solved for a mixture of mainly nitrogen (approximately 78 percent) and oxygen (approximately 22 percent). The appropriate densities are used for each gas, but the viscosity for both gases will be assumed to be similar to that of air. The tracheo-bronchial tree will be assumed to be filled with nitrogen (N2) initially, and that at the beginning of the breath there is no flow and pressure is zero everywhere.


Project Title: “Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Design for Turbomachinery using Sliding Interfaces”

Dr. Chad Burdyshaw, Lead PI

Abstract: Improvements in technologies used in computational simulation of rotating machinery have allowed the ability to increase system complexity for simulations involving multiple rotating parts. A natural extension of modeling capability is to leverage the ability to compute sensitivities for these systems, thereby increasing our depth of knowledge, and facilitating the use of additional tools with which to investigate the system.

The implementation of sliding interfaces for the Tenasi software suite has been detailed in Hyams et al.1

This proposal seeks to expand on that work by implementing discrete adjointsensitivity analysis capability for the mechanisms of the sliding interface method.


Project Title: “Development of a Generalized Fluid-Structure Interaction Interface for SimCenter Software”

Dr. James C. Newman III, Lead PI 

Abstract: The objective of this research is to extend the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) capabilities within the SimCenter to address multidisciplinary applications. Systems of practical interest are usually characterized by complicated interactions occurring between various disciplines.  This reality, therefore, forces the engineer or designer to consider multiple disciplines in order to accurately evaluate the performance of the system.  Coupling between these disciplines will require interdisciplinary transfer of large amounts of data that is independently created. Furthermore, continuity and compatibility conditions will arise that must be enforced.  For example, a common method to simulate fluid-structure interaction (aeroelasticity, hydroelasticity, etc.) is to couple CFD and Computational Structural Dynamic (CSD) programs.  The methods used to solve each set of disciplinary equations are independent.  Interdisciplinary data is then transferred between the two systems in such a way as to conserve load and moment transfer, as well as work done during the simulation. The development of a general interface for interdisciplinary coupling represents a crucial first step in modeling real-world systems, and positions SimCenter to pursue more diverse research proposals. To this end, this interface will be implemented within both TENASI and FUNSAFE software.


Project Title: “Multiwavelet Discontinuous Galerkin Method

Dr. Lafayette K. Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of this research is to reduce the computational burden of memory and runtime for Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) algorithms with large degrees of freedom. It has been shown for the shallow water equations that combining the structure of multiwavelets with the DG method has many benefits. First and foremost, the matrix of the multiwavelet DG operator and its inverse share the same sparse pattern that nearly scales linearly with memory usage and computational performance for increasing degrees of freedom and dimensionality. Current Navier-Stokes DG algorithms require large amounts of memory and have extraordinarily long runtimes. The proposed project would investigate the incorporation of multiwavelets in a DG algorithm for the Euler equations to determine if the same benefits can be obtained that have been documented for the shallow water equations.


Project Title: “Authentication in Mobile Platforms”

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Abstract: With the increased number of mobile devices and with the increased amount of data that consumers and business are now generating, the need to secure data is more relevant than ever. The central part of data security is to authenticate mobile devices and mobile users, ensure the access request is initiated by a valid user from a valid device. This project propose an innovative authentication solution to authenticate mobile devices, users, and associate of them by integrating fuzzy vault scheme with zero-knowledge authentication protocol. The success of the project will increase our capability to defend against various of security attacks including WiFi-sniffing, replay attacks, impersonations, etc. This work will advance current state of art in managing identity of mobile users and devices.


Project Title: “A Power Efficient Multicasting Scheme Using Compressive Sensing”

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: In this proposal, we provide a novel data multicasting scheme for WSNs using compressive sensing (CS). Unlike the existing works, the focus of our proposed algorithm is not on one criterion but on balancing between three criteria of compression rate, communication cost, and decoding complexity. We provide a multihop multicasting algorithm utilizing CS technique that can come close to the network min-cut capacity. The tradeoffs between this algorithm and the existing multicasting algorithms in terms of complexity and communication cost will be studied. The proposed research requires an extensive computer simulations to investigate the proposed algorithm and study the tradeoffs. This problem belongs to Applied Computational Science and Engineering encompassing both development and application of software tools and systems, including solution algorithms, analysis, and information technology.


Project Title: “Shape optimization for flows with particles”

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of the proposed work is to add sensitivity derivative capabilities to the Tenasi particle module and apply it to shape optimization problems. There are classes of engineering problems where a particle laden flow needs to be directed such that the particles are either intercepted (e.g. louvers) or need to be prevented from contacting the walls that direct the flow (e.g. inhalants). The usual approach to such problems is to design the flow-field while keeping in mind the inertial properties of the particles in question. The proposed approach is to directly use the derivatives of the particle trajectories in an optimization process.


Project Title: “Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of Turbine Vane Cascade”

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The NASA C3X turbine cascade has served as an experimental standard for comparison of computational simulation results of turbine flow fields. Since blade cooling is such an important aspect of turbine flow problems, simulations involving both the turbine aerodynamics and heat transfer at the turbine blade surface often use this cascade for determining accuracy of the simulation. Recent experimental results summarized in [1] report convective heat transfer coefficients for a two-dimensional flow around a C3X turbine vane for various values of Reynolds number and various turbulence models. The test vane has three internal cooling passages, each separated by “ribs” having approximately the same thickness as the vane airfoil. Heat conduction through these internal ribs, as well as the airfoil surface, coupled to the flow external to the turbine vane allows for a physically realistic computation to accurately determine the aero-thermal operating environment of the vane. This work will serve the purpose of further validating the use of Tenasi for coupled aero-thermal problems, especially turbine-related problems, as well as the purpose of supporting a graduate student in his research.


Project Title: “Validation of Centrifugal Compressor Performance Using Tenasi”

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: Centrifugal compressors are a key component to the engine system of most, if not all, turbo-shaft engine systems, which are typically employed as the power plant for helicopters. High mass flow rate is typically not required for this type of engine system, but high compression ratio in a relatively small volume is needed; centrifugal compressors are well suited to meet this need. Like all compression systems, the possibility of aerodynamic instability must be allowed for and avoided, if possible. SimCenter personnel have been involved in previous computational studies in which compressor instability and possible methods of mitigating instability were investigated [1]. A different flow solver was used in the previous investigations. It is planned to present a proposal for a research grant to the Army Research Office to investigate other techniques for countering aerodynamic instability in centrifugal compressors based on the experiments of Skoch [2]. However, it is felt that a validation study of the stable operating performance of the compressor which was studied in Refs. [1, 2] should be carried out using Tenasi in order to ensure that the experimental results can be satisfactorily replicated.


Project Title: “Development of a Multi-Regime Solution Capability for Tenasi Flow Solver”

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of the proposed work is to build on first-year progress made in the development of a multi-regime capability for solution of flows containing multiple regimes separated by material interfaces.  With the initial development of the multi-regime data structure, parameter files, and interface tracking via the level set method, the proposed research will enforce the appropriate jump conditions across the interface using ghost points. Also, the single phase level set capability that was tested and further developed in the first year of this project, will be extended to complete the development of the multi-regime capability. Example applications include high-speed flows with droplets, bubbles, and particles; melting and solidification processes; and evolution of combustion fronts.

The proposed multi-regime capability will be developed by solving a convection equation for the level set function. The zero level then defines the location of the material interface. The governing equations appropriate for the specific regime can then be identified and solved based on the sign of the level set function.  A layer of ghost points are then defined along the interface for each regime to enforce appropriate jump conditions across the interface. In this sense, the interface is maintained as completely sharp, with no smearing across the multi-regime interface.


Project Title: “Design of Stents for Bifurcated and Limb Arteries”

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Abstract: Previous SimCenter effort has been focused on the application of the Tenasi Code to reduce failure rates of stent implants in a single unidirectional coronary artery. The problem involves two disparate length scales, the artery diameter, and the small length features of the stent wires. Experience has indicated that solutions could only be obtained with small Courant of the order 1 /2, which results in high computational cost. Further research is required to to eliminate this problem. In the project it is proposed to also broaden the range of applications to include stent implants in bifurcated arteries and to limbs, particularly in legs. Both of these problems identified as two difficult problem areas needing attention by two medical interventionist from Memorial Hospital that we have been meeting with.


Project Title: “Computational Modeling of Physiological Data using Inexpensive and Unobtrusive Sensors: A New Paradigm for Computational Physiology”

Dr. Yu Cao, Lead PI

Abstract: This proposal aims to research, develop, and validate new computational modeling and analysis algorithms of physiological data using new inexpensive and unobtrusive sensors. The main innovations of the proposed research activities include: new models and algorithms for feature extraction, indexing, and performance scoring from massive, low quality, and widely different physiological data generated by inexpensive and unobtrusive sensors. The proposed system will be validated with large-scale, real-world clinical data sets. The proposed research will make significant contribution to the field of the Applied Computational Science and Engineering because the proposed research will contribute substantially to a new computing paradigm: to develop innovative computing techniques that can harness the ubiquitous of inexpensive and unobtrusive sensors for the purpose of mining the massive, longitudinal sensor data for healthcare applications. The proposed research has great potential to solve some major challenges in Computational Physiology. It will build a solid foundation for many biomedical informatics applications and make big impacts on improving health care quality, lowering health care cost, and advancing the biomedical research and development. In addition, our proposed scalable and data-intensive demonstration and related software will serve as a valuable tool to prepare electronic resources for clinical research and education.


Project Title: “Numerical Solution of Lithium Batteries”

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of this research is to continue the development of computational methods for simulatlng lithium-ion batteries. Based on interaction with personnel at the Office of Naval Research (ONR}, and on the fact that Lithium-Ion batteries are well known to be potentially very dangerous because of over heating, this research should be of interest for military and civitian applications. In the case of the Navy, they are interested in topics relevant to safety, with particutar emphasis on being able to track species and heat transfer within the battery.The objective of the project is to develop a three-dimensional simulation capability for analysis of Lithium-Ion batteries with particular emphasis on temperature modeling within the battery. Sensitivity derivatives will also be eventually obtained for examining effects of physical parameters.

To date, initial research has focused on understanding the physics and modeling aspects of lithium-ion batteries. Based on extensive research of existing literature, an initial one-dimensional finite-volume code model has previously been assembled and the resulting time-dependent simulations agree well with other researchers results. Recently, a high-order finite-element model has been developed and the design accuracy has been verified using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) through fourth-order accuracy. The finite~element model has replaced the finite-volume model because this approach can be readily integrated into the finite-element framework that we have developed for fluid mechanics and electromagnetics. For the present grant period, the extension of the one-dimensional model into the three-dimensional finite-element framework is the primary focus.


Project Title: “Extended Capabilities for Electromagnetic Simulations”

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of this research is to continue the development of higher~order  accurate (p >  1) finite-element methods for electromagnetic simulations. In  previous work by the SimCenter, high-order discontinuous-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin methods have been developed for timedomain and frequency-domain applications. This development represents important capability for the SimCenter and has lead to significantly greater understanding of electromagnetic simulations. However, to successfully compete for external funding, this capability needs to be further extended. During this grant, research will focus on two specific areas: continuing to add simulatinn capability for material properties that depend on the electric and magnetic fields; and the application of  the codes for  Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS). The ability to handle materials whose properties are dependent on the electromagnetic field variables will  allow the SimCenter to analyze fiber optics, biomedical applications, and ground penetrating radar.

For FSS applications, we are teaming with Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to submit a proposal combining experimental and computational analysis. Walker Hunsicker, the primary contact at GTRI, bas indicated that the use of FSS's for radome applications is a very high priority for the military and he believes that the SimCenter high-order finite-element is potentially enabling technology for addressing large problems. Presently, these configurations are treated as periodic surfaces due to the large computational resources necessary for a proper treatment and the inability of commercial codes to scale with increasing processors. Completion of this project should position the SimCenter for applying for, and winning, grants for electromagnetic research.


Project Title: “Navier-Stokes Utilizing Discontinous Galerkin/Petrov Galerkin (DF/PG) Approaches”

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Abstract: The obJective of this research is to continue the development of higher-order accurate (p >  1) discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and Petrov-Galerkin (PG) methods for delivering high-accuracy solutions of the Na vier-Stokes equations. Specifically, the codes to date now have the capability to compute threeHlimensional steady-state and time-dependent laminar flows. The emphasis for the current project is to extend these capabilities for turbulent flow and to investigate the use of higher-order methods for large eddy simulations (LES).

Petrov-Galerk:in and discontinuous-Gaierkin methods have been developed for two- and three-dimensional inviscid and laminar flows. Both steady-state and time-dependent methodologies have been developed using implicit time-stepping algorithms. For both methodologies, the order-of-accuracy has been demonstrated and we are evaluating these methods for flows over airfoils and wings. While successful to date, a turbulence model has not yet been incorporated. Robustness and execution efficiency have also not been addressed other than routine paraHel  implementation. During the proposed grant period, development of these methods will  continue.

 

2011-12 CEACSE Awards

2011-2012 Final Report


Project Title: Development of an Overset Grid Approach for the Tenasi Flow Solver

Drs. Kidambi Sreenivas & Robert Wilson, Co-PIs

Abstract: The proposed research will utilize an overset grid approach to manage unsteady simulations with multiple bodies undergoing relative motion and close proximity. An immersed boundary method will be used to communicate fiow field variables at overlapping grid boundaries. Example applications include submarine-torpedo launch, wing-store separation, passing ships in a harbor, and surface ship-submarine safety issues.


Project Title: Multi-Regime Solution Capability via Ghost-Fluid Method

Drs. Kidambi Sreenivas & Robert Wilson, Co-PIs

Abstract: The proposed research will implement a multi-regime capability into the Tenasi flow solver so that the SimCenter can simulate a number of complex phenomena. The level set approach will be used to track the material interface, while the appropriate jump conditions across the interface will be enforced using ghost fluid points. Example applications include high-speed flows with droplets, bubbles, and particles; melting and solidification processes; and evolution of combustion fronts.


Project Title: Shape and Topology Optimization using the UT-Tenasi Code

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI 

Abstract: The objective of this work was start work towards incorporating a topology optimization capability within the UT-Tenasi solver suite. When fully realized such a capability would have myriad engineering applications and holds the promise of generating truly novel solutions to constrained flow optimization problems.


Project Title: Numerical Simulation of Respiratory Flow Patterns within Human Lung

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of this research is to 1) assess the current capability of the flow solver when applied to a bifurcating tube flow problem and 2) enhance the capability of the solver to simulate flow representative of the internal flow of human lung airways. The ultimate desire is an in-depth study of viscous inspiratory flows in planar and non-planar, four and five generations symmetric and asymmetric airway models. Comparisons of the primary and secondary flows for the planar and non-planar geometries will be made in order to understand the combined effects of asymmetry and non-planarity. A mesh refinement study will also be performed to assure that the solutions are mesh independent.


Project Title: Development and Verification of an Analytical Wake Model for Wind Farm Optimization

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: Wind farms are being developed world wide for the production of electricity. The design of these wind farms is governed by various factors including the capital investment, desired power output, noise levels, and visual impact on the surroundings. Placement of wind turbines in a wind farm or wind farm optimization (part of Micro-siting) is important as the losses in power production (because of the turbines being in the wake) are large and often lead to reduced life and reliability of the wind turbines. At present, various thumb rules and empirical laws are used for designing the layout. The problem is not that the flow field can not be simulated for a given wind farm, but, that carrying out simulations for a number of layouts for the optimization process is computationally very expensive and can not be carried out in a realistic amount of time to be useful.


Project Title: Applications of SimCenter Hybrid RANS/LES Code

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Abstract: Previous SimCenter Center of Excellence research has developed an advanced hybrid RANS/LES turbulence model that can accurately predict massively separated and vortex dominated flows as can arise, for example, in flow over aircraft, helicopters, submarines, and behind bluff bodies/buildings/trucks and in tornadoes. A major objective achieved in that research was development of a CFD capability that reduced the required computer cost by an order of magnitude compared to existing methods. The new turbulence model was integrated into the SimCenter TENASI compressible unstructured grid code, which can accurately treat highly complex configurations. It is well known that second order upwind algorithms for the RANS and LES equations have relatively high 2'nd order numerical dissipative errors that act to dissipate regions of vorticity. These errors are particular serious in compact trailing vortical systems such occur in aircraft, helicopter, submarine, bluff body, and tornado flow fields. Higher order numerical algorithms can improve solutions but are restricted to structured grids and simple configurations. The second Vortex Confinement method (VC2) developed by John Steinhoff of UTSI has been shown to capture vortical structures on coarse grids and to do so accurately over arbitrarily long distance with no evidence of numerically induced dissipation. His VC2 method had been restricted to the inviscid Euler equations. The SimCenter basic hybrid method suffers from the same problem. To overcome the problem Steinhoff s VC2 method has been incorporated in the SimCenter hybrid RANS/LES Tenasi code. This extended the VC2 method to the RANS and hybrid RANS/LES equation, providing a capability to calculate all the aerodynamic forces for massively separated and compact vortical flow regions.

The added confinement terms include a positive second order dissipative term and a special second-order anti-dissipative term. The terms are only added to the region external to the surface boundaries. The dissipative term is in the form of a Smagorinsky LES turbulence model. There are two free constants that need to be assigned. It has been established that the one multiplying the dissipative term should be the order of the Smagorinsky constant in the Smagorinsky turbulence model and that the one multiplying anti-dissipative term should be about twice the Smagorinsky constant.

The capabilities of the new code with the added confinement terms were demonstrated in the projects final report in computations. The applications included flow over a surface mounted cube, a wing under high lift conditions. Other computations done after completion of that report included steady flow over an exhaust nozzle and unsteady flow over two fore and aft circular cylinders. The latter computations included numerical results showing close comparisons with experimental data for therms values of the surface pressure fluctuations. This data can be used as input to acoustic codes to predict the acoustic signatures emitted by the cylinders. The formulation of the extended Tenasi code allows for the treatment of both the RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES methods simply by a choice of the grid. It can treat the flow as inviscid by just dropping the RANS turbulence model terms.

The technology developed demonstrated for the first time, a practical and accurate computational capability for engineering analysis of massively separated and vortex dominated flows. Further efforts are needed to both, verify the numerical accuracy of the code through grid refinement studies and to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the values of the two adjustable constants in the VC terms. Then new project will focus on the application the SimCenter Hybrid method to two application classes: helicopter flow and the wind flow over groups of buildings.


Project Title: A Validation Study of Tenasi’s Conjugate Heat Transfer

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: The importance of the transport of thermal energy (heat transfer) in the solution of practical engineering problems cannot be understated. It is an effect that is practically ubiquitous and, therefore, has to be taken into account in some manner for the vast majority of problems involving fluid flow, since convective thermal transport is one the three modes of heat transfer. For many years, simplified thermal boundary conditions (e.g. adiabatic wall/surface or prescribed wall/surface temperature) have been used, and these conditions are suitable for a large number of problems. However, the capability to couple the heat transfer between a fluid and solid along the fluid-solid interface is a powerful means of increasing a flow solver's ability to accurately treat realistic problems. This is especially true if the given problem is transient in nature and/or ifthe solid surface/wall is actively cooled or heated, either in a steady-state or time-dependent manner. The proposed work will seek to validate existing technology for the treatment of conjugate heat transfer problems within the Tenasi software suite by conducting simulations of a variety of problems involving thermal-fluid coupling and making comparisons of the results with experimental data or purely theoretical solutions if available. This will allow for future simulations of such problems to be made with confidence, as well as providing material for proposals with regard to heat transfer.


Project Title: Analysis and Design of Biological Stent Implants

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Abstract: There are about 1.3 million surgical coronary interventions performed annually in the U.S. Of these 70-90% are implanted stents and 18-20% of these involve bifurcations of arteries. Failure rates of the stent interventions are high, of the order of20-30%. The failures are due mainly to restenosis -the blocking of the stented arteries by the disposition of plaque on artery walls. This process is poorly understood but it is recognized that it involves two important processes: the disturbed fluid dynamic environment within and near the stented arteries and the transport and attachment of plaques to the stented artery walls.

The fluid flow within large arteries can be treated by the Navier-Stokes equation as an incompressible low Reynolds number viscous flow. The Reynolds number based on artery diameter is of the order of a few hundred. In general the flow can be considered a Newtonian, laminar flow, although turbulent flow and small non-Newtonian effects can arise in some circumstances. Although steady state computations can be useful, the real flow is unsteady and pulsatile due to motions of the heart and the small arteries. Over the past decade CFD has been widely applied to simulate both steady and unsteady flows within stented and natural arteries. This is a relatively large-scale problem due to the requirement for time accuracy the need to treat two disparate length scales. The ratio of the artery diameter to thickness of the stent can be as large as 50.

To be clinically useful CFD simulations should be time accurate, accurately predict blood flow velocity, pressure, wall shear stress, arterial motion, employ realistic inlet and outlet boundary conditions, accurate stent geometries and artery configurations. Although much useful information has been developed from the simulations conducted to date none have satisfied all these criteria. Previous experimental and computational studies have shown the importance of the fluid flow near wall region of stented arteries and have identified several flow mechanisms that could promote restenosis in stented arteries. These include:

  • Regions of low Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and high oscillatory WSS are susceptible to plaque deposition
  • Regions at the upstream inlet of the stent due compliance mismatch across rigid stent and natural artery wall interface are at risk for inducing restenosis. The large curvature variation at both stent edges resulted in low local WSS and flow separation regions downstream
  • Implants rear artery bifurcations are at significant risk for inducing restenosis due to flow separation
  • Regions of low WSS can occur between the stent wires depending on the spacing between the wires
  • The kinks that form in arteries at the ends of stents can also cause problems

All the papers studied to date have involved numerical simulation of industrially available stents or of simplified geometric models. Most of the simulations have verified the numerical accuracy of the results through grid refinement studies. Two and full threedimensional simulations and steady and time accurate simulations were conducted. All the results reviewed employed commercially available CFD codes. The early studies were all carried out on small workstations with few cpus and were computationally expensive. One group started to use a supercomputer in 2008. It is important to note that grid converged numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow at low Reynolds number can be considered exact. This minimizes the need for validation through comparison with experimental data. There have been in vivo animal experiments into the relationship between WSS and Restenosis that have identified.some of the important physical process following stent implantation. However much of the CFD studies relied on grid converged solutions to draw conclusions. It is important to note that existing CFD work was focused on establishing the flow environment in existing stents. It appears that there was no attempt to use optimization techniques to design stents that minimized restenosis induced stent failure rates.

The overall goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate the SimCenter capability to reduce restenosis induced failure rates of implanted stents. The availability of its high quality unstructured Grid CFD solver, its design optimization technology and its highly skilled staff makes the Sim Center uniquely qualified to conduct this development program. If successful, this would the first time that CFD was used to design more effective stents. More importantly, it would lead to improved survival rates for the millions of people worldwide receiving stent implants!


Project Title: Enhanced Compression in Distributed Sensing Applications

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Abstract: Extending our previous work supported by CEA CSE 2010, we plan to design an algorithm for real-time data acquisition in WSNs. A recently revitalized technique called compressive sensing (CS) has presented a new method to capture sparse signals at a rate below Nyquist. There are inefficiencies to directly applying the existing CS algorithm to WSNs, which are 1nainly due to the fact that these algorithms do not exploit the unique properties of sensor signals. As att example, the sensor readings do not only have spatial correlation, but also temporal correlation. Simultaneously exploiting these two correlation·s can significantly reduce the required number oftrans1nissions. Moreover, the sparsity of sensor signals-has a cluster pattern that can further reduce the required number of transmission and improve the recovery robustness. In this work, we investigate an algorithm that uses these properties of sensor signals to extent the life of WSNs.


Project Title: Online Opinion Mining on Social Media

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Abstract: This white paper proposes the computational modeling and analysis of online social media and their influence on the physical domains in non-western countries. In recent years, the online social media platforms have become new alternative publishing media for millions of users to post their opinions. This project increase our capability to understand opinions of population from non-western culture 'and to predict real-world behaviors are important to make strategic diplomatic decision and defend against terrorism. In this project, we propose a con1putational visual mining approach to analyzing dynamic public opinion using non-western online forums. This work will extend computational sentiment mining to a new subject domain (non-western culture social politics) and a new text genre ( online discussion forums).


Project Title: Large-Scale Medical Image Modeling for Intelligent Medical Information Retrieval

Dr. Yu Cao, Lead PI

Abstract: Images are ubiquitous in biomedicine as they play a vital role in medical diagnosis, clinical treatment. and biomedical research/education. Most of the existing medical image retrieval systems rely mainly on textual infonnation or patient identifications. Under these systems, a large number of relevant information (e.g., images from other patients with similar disease, or relevant cases from biomedical literature) is missing from the searching results due to the inability of existing textual modeling approaches to handle the data-intensive image modeling tasks. This project provides a concrete means to address this critical issue by investigating, developing, and evaluating new large-scale computational modeling and analysis techniques to facilitate medical information retrieval. This research will make significant contribution to the field of the Applied Computational Science and Engineering because it has great potential to improve healthby leading the development of new computational biomedicine applications. Specifically, the public availability (and potentially wide adoption) of the proposed computational modeling algorithms and techniques will lead to improved quality of retrieval results of medical images, ultimately contributing to better diagnostics, treatment planning and evaluation of related diseases. Moreover, our proposed large-scale and data-intensive demonstration and related software will serve as a valuable tool to prepare electronic resources for clinical research and education.


Project Title: Tenasi Cloud Computing Initiative

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Abstract: The objective of this research was to port Tenasi to a cloud computing environment for on-demand computations. Further, the Tenasi software suite and tools have been modified such that cloud resources can be used just as easily as local computational resources. 

 

2010-11 CEACSE Awards

2010-2011 Final Report


Project Title: Unstructured Elliptic Smoothing

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Abstract: Extend the method to control edge lengths and angles of the viscous mesh by manipulating the VCV’s. Create viscous meshes by inserting boundary layer type elements into an existing mesh connectivity and use elliptic smoothing to produce the desired viscous normal distribution. Explore the manipulation of these VCV’s for solution-based mesh adaptation.


Project Title: Tetrahedral Mesh Creation/Optimization Using Edge/Face Flips

Mr. C. Bruce Hilbert, Lead PI 

Abstract: A robust tetrahedral mesh generation procedure is essential to the creation of high quality meshes for numerical simulations. Existing tetrahedral meshing schemes rely on Delaunay properties in a point insertion technique. The proposed method does not rely on the Delaunay property, but instead will simply insert new points through cell subdivision. This is followed by an optimization procedure where edges and faces are "flipped" to create new tetrahedral configurations that improve a specified cost function. This approach can also be used to optimize an existing mesh created by another method. One potential application is in the dynamic simulation of multi-body motion where the mesh can be optimized in response to boundary movement. A more immediate application is the "stitching together" of existing but unconnected meshes such as is needed in the FAST AR algorithm developed bv Dr. Vincent Betro.


Project Title: Data Acquisition in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Distributed Rateless Codes

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI 

Abstract: To provide an efficient data acquisition algorithm for WSNs, we need to solve the following problems: The transition probability matrix in random walk. The degree distribution of rateless code for compressive sensing. Recovery algorithm that works in finite/loss networks. Guessing process of our proposed recovery algorithm.


Project Title: Modeling Turbulence Kinetic Energy for High Energy Flows

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Abstract: For atmospheric and hypersonic flows, turbulence kinetic energy is easily on par with the kinetic energy of the mean flow, and a proper accounting of turbulence kinetic energy in the overall energy balance is vital to accurate simulations. Shock-boundary layer interaction is an enigma that is slowly being understood, and better modeling of the Reynolds stresses in the mean flow and turbulence model computations are showing progress in recent literature in this area, and these changes will naturally enhance the simulations of highly separated flows currently being studied by the SimCenter.


Project Title: Targeted Mesh Adaptation for Finite Element Based Electro-Magnetics Field Solvers

Dr. Chad Burdyshaw, Lead PI

Abstract: Develop and implement algorithms to perform error estimation and h-p mesh adaptation in an effort to improve the accuracy of scattering parameter computation for general waveguide simulation.


Project Title: Spray Modeling Enhancements to the UTC Tenasi Lagrangian Particle Tracking Module

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Abstract: To enable the Lagrangian particle tracking module in the Tenasi solver to handle liquid sprays.


Project Title: Profiling and Predicting Behaviors of Network-based Intrusions

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Abstract: Propose an approach to profile and predict behavior of intruders, which will enable fast detection and response against possible security breaches. Effectively detect and predict multi-step attacks. Efficiently prioritize security events based on accuracy and severity. Deliver a real application system to handle intrusions from real-world.


Project Title: Investigation of Boundary Conditions for Optimal Domain Size

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Abstract: To investigate and implement accurate and consistent boundary conditions for fluid dynamic or Maxwell’s equations.


Project Title: Investigation of Reduced Mesh Density for Resolution of Air/Water Interfaces

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Abstract: Add SC artificial diffusion term to species transport and continuity equations in the Tenasi code.


Project Title: Navier-Stokes Utilizing Discontinuous Galerkin/Petrov Galerkin (DG/PG) Approaches

Dr. Li Wang, Lead PI

Abstract: Develop and implement DG/PG methods for higher order solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.


Project Title: Investigation of Local Low Mach Number Preconditioning Schemes

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: Explore local preconditional strategies for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.


 

Project Title: Physics-Based Modeling for Multi-material Interfaces

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Abstract: Implement and validate multi-material interface capability in Tenasi.


Project Title: Enhancing Scalability of Tenasi

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Abstract: Work collaboratively with IBM in order to get Tenasi running efficiently on a petascale-level machine.


Project Title: LES of Chemically Reacting Flows

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: Investigate the use and extension of LES techniques to compressible flows. Investigate LES as applied to high-speed external flows in which dissociation reactions can become relevant. Study the injection of propane into air; though not a reacting case, this involves turbulent mixing of multiple species. Study low-speed reacting flows, an example of which is a turbulent, non premixed flame.


Project Title: Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for a priori Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Sub-grid Model Evaluation

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Abstract: Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the most accurate way to simulate turbulent flow fields, and it also provides the greatest detail of the commonly used methodologies (LES and RANS), In order to resolve the length and time scales, the required computational grids are very large; computational time steps are required to be very small such that a large number of iterations may be required for any given simulation, In short, the use of DNS is computationally very expensive and is limited to use in flows having a low Reynolds number, However, it is believed that DNS can be put to use to provide a sound means of evaluating LES sub-grid scale (SGS) models and to possibly improve these models. That is the purpose of this proposed work.


Project Title: Propulsion Sub-System Integration Using Tenasi

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Abstract: Use a flat plate to represent the upper surface of a blended wing body aircraft; this would all for boundary layer development and the ingestion of this boundary layer into the inlets. Investigate a single inletfan combination mounted on the representation of the wing-body at flight conditions. Investigate the interaction of multiple inlets with each other and the external boundary layers.


Project Title: Electromagnetic Simulations for Non-linear Materials

Drs. Kyle Anderson & Li Wang, Co-PIs

Abstract: Develop higher-order accurate finite element methods for electromagnetic simulations for material properties that are dependent on the electric and magnetic fields, as well as time.

 

2009-10 CEACSE Awards

2009-2010 Final Report


Project Title: Numerical Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Dr. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Sagar Kapadia, Co-PIs

Objective: To develop computational methods for simulating lithium-ion batteries and to develop an initial simulation capability for analysis. This will then be extended to modeling combustion. Sensitivity derivatives will also be obtained for examining effects of physical parameters.


Project Title: Large Eddy Simulation of Internal Turbulent Flows"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate the accuracy of models to perform large-eddy simulation of internal turbulent flows in realistic engineering configurations.


Project Title: Implementation of the Hydrodynamic and Control System Design Technology into the Tenasi Unstructured Flow Solver"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: To implement and evaluate the hydrodynamic/aerodynamic and control system design technology into the Tenasi unstructured flow solver.


Project Title: Development and Analysis of Solution Algorithms for Field Simulation Problems"

Dr. Roger Briley and Dr. David Whitfield, Co-PIs

Objective: To conduct exploratory research on improved methods for solving field conservation/balance equations that may include complex and/or stiff source terms.


Project Title: Generic Interface Methodology for Multi-Physics Applications"

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Objective: To establish a computational foundation to allow for the communication of generic entities across volume boundaries, which would allow for simulation of the interaction and response of an overall system.


Project Title: Tetrahedral Mesh Creation/Optimization Using Edge/Face Flips"

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Objective: Implementation of a tetrahedral mesh creation procedure using point insertion combined with edge and face flips to optimize the mesh quality based on cost function.


Project Title: Unstructured Elliptic Smoothing"

Dr. Steve Karman, Lead PI

Objective: Extend the initial stencil of the VCV method to incorporate control of edge lengths as well as angles of the faces of control volume. 


Project Title: CFD Based Two-Phase Loss Analysis for Solid Rocket Motors"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: To use the Lagrangian particle module in UTC Tenasi with enhancements to study the sources and magnitudes of two-phase losses in solid rocket motors.


Project Title: Robust and Efficient Rate Adaptation in Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks"

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Objective: To maintain the optimal performance of wireless communications in vehicle networks. Three modern channel codes will be tested and evaluated for this application: wavelet convolutional codes, LDPC codes, and rateless codes.


Project Title: “Validation of Rotorcraft Simulations using Tenasi"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To validate the unstructured variant of Tenasi in simulating rotorcraft problems. 


Project Title: “Simulations of Interactions Between Multiple Moving Bodies Using Overset Techniques"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To implement a method that will be capable of handling interactions between multiple moving bodies without necessitating grid regeneration.


Project Title: Petro-Galerkin and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Unstructured Flow Solvers" 

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To explore the Petrov-Galerkin and Discontinuous Galerkin methods for improving the accuracy of the unstructured flow solver. 


Project Title: Diffuse Interface Methods for Wind-Ocean Wave Interactions"

Dr. Lafayette Taylor, Lead PI

Objective: To develop a Diffuse Interface of Method that fully accounts for the mutual interaction between atmospheric winds and ocean waves.


Project Title: Tank Sloshing Simulations in Microgravity Environments"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: To perform code development, physical modeling and simulations for tank sloshing in a microgravity environment, using the Tenasi flow solver.


Project Title: "Emerging Infectious Disease: A Computational Multi-agent Model"

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Objective: To examine the effect of various factors and interaction situation on emergent epidemic patters on infectious diseases.

 

2008-09 CEACSE Awards

2008-2009 Final Report


Project Title: Computational Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Components

Dr. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Objective: To continue the development of the simulation and design codes to analyze and improve fuel cell components that are considered critical for advancing the technology to the point where fuel cells become a viable means of producing power for industrial applications.


Project Title: Computational Simulation of an Experimental Knudsen Compressor"

Dr. Glenn Brook, Lead PI

Objective: To improve the performance of the Boltzmann-BGK solver in use at the SimCenter and apply the improved solver to the investigation of an experimental Knudsen compressor relative to actual device geometries. 


Project Title: Tenasi Performance Enhancement for Petascale Computing"

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Objective: To research and implement methods into the Tenasi code that address each of these barriers to high efficiency scalability to petascale computing levels


Project Title: Extension of the SimCenter Agent Based Modeling Code to biological systems, transportation and risk management"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: To study the feasibility of extending the SimCenter ABM system into the fields of biological, transportation and risk management.


Project Title: A panic model for the SimCenter Agent Based Modeling code"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: To design, implement and validate a panic model for the SimCenter ABM code.


Project Title: An agglomeration model for the Tenasi particle module"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: To implement a highly simplified agglomeration model which can produce post-contact particle populations with reasonable radius and velocity statistics.  Both stochastic and deterministic collision models will be considered.


Project Title: TinyID: A Revolutionized Warehouse Management Tool"

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Objective: To maintain the accuracy and reliability of the TinyID system, and considering the cost and energy constraints on individual TinyID tags, by proposing and modifying the existent algorithms on :  Efficient and flexible routing, network security and date aggregation.


Project Title: Implementation of an arbitrary equation of state into the Tenasi family of flow solvers"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To develop and implement an algorithm capable of numerically simulating a fluid with an arbitrary equate of state.


Project Title: Improving the order of accuracy for unstructured flow solvers"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To develop and implement approaches that will improve the order of accuracy of the unstructured flow solver. 


Project Title: Implementation of the Phase Field Approach into the Tenasi Unstructured Solver"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: To implement a phase field approach into the current Tenasi unstructured solver for tracking of multiphase gas/liquid and liquid/solid phase change interfaces.


Project Title: Level set approach for chemical etching and deposition"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: To extend the current Tenasi unstructured level set fabrication of electronic devices during etching and deposition processes.


Project Title: Fluid-Structure interaction for ship hydrodynamics"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: To develop and use a relatively straightforward ID Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam equation solver to model the unsteady structural response of a surface ship to incident waves.


Project Title: A Fast Response and Planning System in Disaster Management"

Dr. Li Yang, Lead PI

Objective: To provide a platform for different emergency responding teams to communicate and collaborate with each other, integrate intelligence and information, and deploy real-time and effective emergency strategies using situational data and existing knowledge base.

 

2007-08 CEACSE Awards 

2007-2008 Final Report


Project Title: Entanglement, Decoherence, and Quantum Feedback

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI

Objective: To show how entanglement increases as the atom-cavity joint decoherence rate increases in the presence of optimal feedback, in order to show the upper limit of entanglement creation.


Project Title: “Multicast Protocol on Intel Mote 2 Sensor Network Platform"

Dr. Mina Sartipi, Lead PI

Objective: To introduce a new multicasting algorithm and a simple routing protocol for lossy wireless sensor networks with a focus on reducing the power consumed by sensor nodes in transmitting data from source node to destination nodes through multiple hops.


Project Title: A Secure and Reliable Wireless Ad-Hoc Network in Disaster Management"

Dr. Li Yang and Dr. Joseph Kizza, Co-PIs

Objective: To design an infrastructure-less communication model to significantly improve our ability to control damage of a disaster where geographical or terrestrial constraints demand totally distributed networks. To develop different strategies to defend the wireless networks against misbehaving nodes in harsh environments. To implement the secure and reliable wireless networks for the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA) in the short term, and The City of Chattanooga in the long term.


Project Title: Simulation of Biodiesel Production by Microreaction Systems"

Dr. Frank Jones, Lead PI

Objective: To design and simulate a micro reaction system that produces biodiesel fuel from soybean oil.


Project Title: Analysis and Sensitivity Derivatives for Plasma Simulations"

Dr. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Objective: To develop computational methods for numerically simulating RF capacitive-coupled discharge plasmas. To develop simulation capability that will account for reactions amongst multiple species as well as metastable molecules and elements. To obtain sensitivity derivatives with the intent of using the sensitivity derivatives in conjunction with the analysis codes to influence the plasma parameters and chemical composition to achieve particular design goals.


Project Title: Computational Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Components"

Dr. Kyle Anderson, Lead PI

Objective: To use numerical simulations to analyze and improve fuel cell components that are considered critical for advancing the technology to the point where fuel cells become a viable means of producing power for industrial applications.


Project Title: Adjoint-Based System for Design Optimization"

Dr. Chad Burdyshaw and Dr. Kyle Anderson, Co-PIs

Objective: To research and develop methods to exploit the adjoint capability for error estimation and for adaptive meshing in order to significantly enhance the capability of the SimCenter to improve existing designs using computational methods.


Project Title: Physical/Mathematical Modeling and Solution of Field Simulation Problems"

Dr. Roger Briley, Dr. David Whitfield and Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Co-PIs

Objective: To identify new application areas in which SimCenter modeling and simulation expertise can make important contributions, to identify how existing technologies can be leveraged within these areas, and to link these opportunities to potential funding sources.


Project Title: A Droplet Splatter Model for the Tenasi Particle Module"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: To design and implement a droplet splatter model to the Tenasi particle module for more realistic simulation of solid rocket motors, and to verify and validate the model upon implementation.


Project Title: An Agent-Based Simulation Module in Tenasi"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: Design and implementation of an agent-based model (ABM) within the Tenasi solver suite to be used for flooding and/or plume transport simulations, which will be used to drive evacuation simulations using the ABM module. To verify and validate the model upon implementation.


Project Title: Turbulence Modeling for Multi-Speed Flows"

Dr. Stephen Nichols, Lead PI

Objective: To identify and correct the root causes of intermittent inaccurate turbulent performance in the Tenasi code to guarantee the utmost accuracy and confidence in the turbulent Arbitrary Mach Number simulations ranging from combustion modeling to atmospheric flows.


Project Title: Development of a Deforming Mesh Capability for Unstructured Meshes"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: To develop an algorithm capable of deforming unstructured meshes, and implement it in the unstructured variant of the Tenasi family of flow solvers in order to carry out physics based trajectory simulations that arise from prescribed movement of control surfaces on submarines, surface ships and aircraft.


Project Title: Kinetic Simulation of Chemically Reactive Gas Flows on Unstructured Grids"

Mr. Glenn Brook, Lead PI

Objective: To extend a parallel, implicit, unstructured, finite-volume flow solver for the Boltzmann-BGK equation to support chemically reactive species.


Project Title: Hybrid Turbulence Models for Vortex and Separated Flows"

Dr. Lafe Taylor, Lead PI

Objective: To implement a new hybrid turbulence model into the unstructured Tenasi CFD code for application to massively separated and vortex dominated flows. To verify and validate the numerical accuracy of this turbulence model. To establish the computational resources required for various applications.


Project Title: Modeling and Analysis of Combustion Instability in Rocket Engines and Motors"

Dr. Robert Webster, Lead PI

Objective: To develop and demonstrate capability to analyze combustion chamber acoustic characteristics, physics of laminar diffusion flames, and their combined effects. To add higher-order schemes for improved accuracy into the flow solver(s) and to include sensitivity derivatives for effects of physical and design parameters. 

 

2006-07 CEACSE Awardees

2006-2007 Final Report

New Research Activities Funded by the Center in Fiscal Year 2006-2007:


Project Title: “Kinetic Simulation of Multispecies Gas Flows on Unstructured Grids

Mr. R. Glenn Brook, Lead PI

Objective: To develop a parallel, implicit, unstructured, finite-volume flow solver for the Boltzmann-BGK equation that supports multispecies fluid flows to enable future research into chemically reactive nanoscale flows.


Extended Research Activities Funded by the Center in Fiscal Year 2005-2006 and Completed in Fiscal Year 2006-2007:

Project Title: Information Communication Mediator Model in Disaster Management"

Dr. Li Yang and Dr. Joseph Kizza, Co-PIs

Objective: Provide timely, secure and dependable communication between public health and safety agencies in the face of the natural disaster or man-made disaster; and provide a methodology to specify, analyze and validate the prototypes in real-time distributed data access and assistive computer technology.


Project Title: “Multiprocessor Objective-C computer Systems for High Performance Computing"

Dr. Andrew Novobilski, Lead PI

Objective: Support the development of a Multiprocessing Objective-C Compiler System (MOCS) that includes native language support for distributed, event-based, scientific computing applications. This tool will be a first implementation of a necessary component, the ability to transparently apply High Performance Computing to large data set problems, in the current research being carried out by the Principal Investigator in conjunction with several emergency room physicians.


Project Title: “Computational Methods for Field Simulations"

Dr. W. Roger Briley, Lead PI

Objective: Identify new applications whose underlying physical processes have mathematical models that are sufficiently well developed to justify large-scale computational simulations, both as a tool for improving physical understanding and for efficient and effective low-cost problem solutions. Possible areas of new research include alternative energy sources, nanotechnology, biotechnology, electromagnetics, atmospheric and ocean sciences, and hydrology. New areas of research that are linked to local companies or regional economic development will be a high priority. Possible opportunities exist with Black Light Power, Radiance Technologies, Adaptive Methods, and Aerotonomy, Inc.


Project Title: “Advanced Turbulence Modeling for Unstructured Topologies"

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols III, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a high-fidelity computational capability for numerically simulating highly separated, turbulent fluid flows that are frequently encountered in real world problems. This research will advance the capabilities of the SimCenter in computational simulation and design of fluid-dynamic phenomena involving highly separated, turbulent fluid flows about complex configurations. In particular, the study of urban environmental flows, of global and regional climate modeling, of atmospheric transport and diffusion of pollutants, and of large vehicle drag reduction will be greatly enhanced. Consequently the University’s potential will be enhanced by improving its marketability to industry and government agencies such as DOE, DOD, and Homeland Security.


Project Title: “Unstructured Solution Algorithm System Integration, Design and Testing"

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Objective: Provide a consistently stable software platform in order to effectively offer the technological capabilities of the SimCenter to potential sponsors. Produce an integrated software implementation of all unstructured technologies that can be used in conjunction with all proposed projects. In addition, a full suite of verification results as well as an automated testing engine are to be implemented, such that any anomalous behavior of the software implementation is isolated within a short time frame.


Project Title: “Development of Parallel Eulerian-Lagrangian Two-Phase Flow Solvers"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a high-fidelity computational capability for numerically simulating the fluid mechanics of two phase flow consisting of particulate matter being transported by the gas phase. The two-phase flow module would expand the capabilities of flow codes to problems ranging from pollutant transport to rocket engines. The new capabilities would be of interest to government agencies such as DOD,DOE, EPA and DHS as well as the process and aerospace industries.


Project Title: “Quantum Measurement and Feedback in Atomic Systems"

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a theoretical and computational framework for the design and analysis of quantum feedback control systems. To study the steady-state entanglement in a two qubit system using quantum measurement and feedback in order to find an analytical solution for the steady-state entanglement using a homodyne-mediated feedback scheme.


Project Title: “Evaluation and Enhancement of an Unstructured Grid Algorithm for Free Surface"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: Test and further develop an unstructured flow solver for simulation of turbulent free surface flow over complex geometries, including military and commercial ships. The computational tool will be used to investigate high speed flow over ships with breaking waves. This research will advance the capabilities of the computational simulation of free surface flows and ship design. When combined with hull form optimization techniques, the approach could be used to reduce ship resistance, free surface signatures, and propeller performance. This research which will greatly enhance the potential and marketability of the computational tool to industry and government agencies such as the DOD, DOE, and Homeland Security in general, and in particular, the Office of Naval Research. Furthermore, this project will involve and educate students in basic free surface modeling and hydrodynamic, as well as dynamic ship response to environmental conditions.


Project Title: “Computation of Dynamic Stability and Control Devices"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a predictive technology to support virtual design and evaluation of underwater vehicles systems, employing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based methodology for predicting stability and control derivatives. Computational Fluid Dynamics technology coupled with modeling and control system design will allow vehicle conceptual designs to be evaluated within the context of a realistic mission. The preliminary goal of this effort is to estimate stability and control derivatives of underwater vehicles from CFD data as an evaluation of the potential for this method to replace/reduce expensive experimental (i.e. tow-tank) tests. The results of the study will be used to improve the performance of underwater vehicles.


Project Title: “A Fundamental Study of the Effects of Design on Heterogeneous Biocatalysts"

Dr. Frank Jones, Lead PI

Objective: T Perform computer simulations to study the fundamental effects of changing the size, shape, location, and density of packing particles on conversion in microchannels in order to develop the ability to design a packing structure for optimum conversion. This ability should be of great economic value to the micro and non device community.


Project Title: “Geometry Manipulation and Visualization, Computational Simulation and Design"

Ms. Dawn Ellis and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop a platform independent console to facilitate the computational design process. Specific objectives include the ability to input geometry from a CAD package to prepare for meshing; the ability to define boundary constraints, group boundaries and define design variables based on the CAD model; the ability to place constraints to ensure geometric usability, and the ability to manage the overall design process by monitoring cost, gradients and constraints.


Project Title: “Extensible Adjoint Methods for Sensitivity Analysis, Error Estimation, and Adaptive Meshing"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop an adjoint solver based on the existing unstructured mesh solver in the SimCenter which will be discretely consistent with the flow solver and which will be “self maintaining” in that changes in the analysis code will be automatically reflected in the adjoint solver. Once developed, the adjoint solver will be used for sensitivity analysis, design, error estimation, and adaptive meshing.


Project Title: “Adjoint Method for Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop computational methods for numerically simulating problems involving magnetohydrodynamics. This capability would provide the ability to simulate MHD problems where the results have quantitatively known levels of accuracy. The results can be used to support research in fusion.


Project Title: “Computational Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Components"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Use numerical simulations to analyze and improve fuel cell components that are considered critical for advancing the technology to the point where fuel cells become a viable means of producing power for industrial applications.


Project Title: “Computational Engineering with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells"

Dr. James Henry, Lead PI

Objective: Enable a thorough investigation and analysis of the modeling, operation and performance of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) used in the Chattanooga Fuel Cell Demonstration project funded by the Department of Energy. The computer engineering and technical infrastructure is vital to the success of the Chattanooga Fuel Cell Demonstration project. The equipment control, data acquisition and communication of performance are all totally dependent upon reliable and effective computer hardware and software.


Project Title: “Advancement and Verification of the Navier-Stokes Flow Solver for Rocket Motor Internal Flows"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: Provide a computational analysis tool in support and development of modeling and simulation of solid propellant rocket motors (SRMs) by government agencies and industry. To assess the current capability of the flow solver when applied to a basic internal flow problem with wall blowing and to enhance the capability of the solver to simulate flow representative of the internal flow of SRMs.


Project Title: “Development of an Unstructured Grid Algorithm for Turbomachinery"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: Develop an algorithm capable of numerically simulating the flow field arising from multi-row (purely axial, as well as axial and radial combinations) turbomachinery. This algorithm will be implemented in an unstructured flow solver as unstructured grids are inherently more capable of handling complex geometries than corresponding structured grids. This capability will be used to carry out simulations of the unsteady interactions between blade rows of a turbomachine. This capability can also be applied to carry out simulations of a class of problems that involve rotation about a fixed axis, for example, propellers attached to ships and submarines, tilt-rotor aircrafts, helicopter rotor blades undergoing cyclic pitch variation etc.

 

2005-06 CEACSE Awards

2005-2006 Final Report


Project Title: Information Communication Mediator Model in Disaster Management"

Dr. Li Yang and Dr. Joseph Kizza, Co-PIs

Objective: Provide timely, secure and dependable communication between public health and safety agencies in the face of the natural disaster or man-made disaster; and provide a methodology to specify, analyze and validate the prototypes in real-time distributed data access and assistive computer technology.


Project Title: “Multiprocessor Objective-C computer Systems for High Performance Computing"

Dr. Andrew Novobilski, Lead PI

Objective: Support the development of a Multiprocessing Objective-C Compiler System (MOCS) that includes native language support for distributed, event-based, scientific computing applications. This tool will be a first implementation of a necessary component, the ability to transparently apply High Performance Computing to large data set problems, in the current research being carried out by the Principal Investigator in conjunction with several emergency room physicians.


Project Title: “Computational Methods for Field Simulations"

Dr. W. Roger Briley, Lead PI

Objective: Identify new applications whose underlying physical processes have mathematical models that are sufficiently well developed to justify large-scale computational simulations, both as a tool for improving physical understanding and for efficient and effective low-cost problem solutions. Possible areas of new research include alternative energy sources, nanotechnology, biotechnology, electromagnetics, atmospheric and ocean sciences, and hydrology. New areas of research that are linked to local companies or regional economic development will be a high priority. Possible opportunities exist with Black Light Power, Radiance Technologies, Adaptive Methods, and Aerotonomy, Inc.


Project Title: “Advanced Turbulence Modeling for Unstructured Topologies"

Dr. D. Stephen Nichols III, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a high-fidelity computational capability for numerically simulating highly separated, turbulent fluid flows that are frequently encountered in real world problems. This research will advance the capabilities of the SimCenter in computational simulation and design of fluid-dynamic phenomena involving highly separated, turbulent fluid flows about complex configurations. In particular, the study of urban environmental flows, of global and regional climate modeling, of atmospheric transport and diffusion of pollutants, and of large vehicle drag reduction will be greatly enhanced. Consequently the University’s potential will be enhanced by improving its marketability to industry and government agencies such as DOE, DOD, and Homeland Security.


Project Title: “Unstructured Solution Algorithm System Integration, Design and Testing"

Dr. Daniel Hyams, Lead PI

Objective: Provide a consistently stable software platform in order to effectively offer the technological capabilities of the SimCenter to potential sponsors. Produce an integrated software implementation of all unstructured technologies that can be used in conjunction with all proposed projects. In addition, a full suite of verification results as well as an automated testing engine are to be implemented, such that any anomalous behavior of the software implementation is isolated within a short time frame.


Project Title: “Development of Parallel Eulerian-Lagrangian Two-Phase Flow Solvers"

Dr. Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a high-fidelity computational capability for numerically simulating the fluid mechanics of two phase flow consisting of particulate matter being transported by the gas phase. The two-phase flow module would expand the capabilities of flow codes to problems ranging from pollutant transport to rocket engines. The new capabilities would be of interest to government agencies such as DOD,DOE, EPA and DHS as well as the process and aerospace industries.


Project Title: “Quantum Measurement and Feedback in Atomic Systems"

Dr. Jin Wang, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a theoretical and computational framework for the design and analysis of quantum feedback control systems. To study the steady-state entanglement in a two qubit system using quantum measurement and feedback in order to find an analytical solution for the steady-state entanglement using a homodyne-mediated feedback scheme.


Project Title: “Evaluation and Enhancement of an Unstructured Grid Algorithm for Free Surface"

Dr. Robert Wilson, Lead PI

Objective: Test and further develop an unstructured flow solver for simulation of turbulent free surface flow over complex geometries, including military and commercial ships. The computational tool will be used to investigate high speed flow over ships with breaking waves. This research will advance the capabilities of the computational simulation of free surface flows and ship design. When combined with hull form optimization techniques, the approach could be used to reduce ship resistance, free surface signatures, and propeller performance. This research which will greatly enhance the potential and marketability of the computational tool to industry and government agencies such as the DOD, DOE, and Homeland Security in general, and in particular, the Office of Naval Research. Furthermore, this project will involve and educate students in basic free surface modeling and hydrodynamic, as well as dynamic ship response to environmental conditions.


Project Title: “Computation of Dynamic Stability and Control Devices"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a predictive technology to support virtual design and evaluation of underwater vehicles systems, employing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based methodology for predicting stability and control derivatives. Computational Fluid Dynamics technology coupled with modeling and control system design will allow vehicle conceptual designs to be evaluated within the context of a realistic mission. The preliminary goal of this effort is to estimate stability and control derivatives of underwater vehicles from CFD data as an evaluation of the potential for this method to replace/reduce expensive experimental (i.e. tow-tank) tests. The results of the study will be used to improve the performance of underwater vehicles.


Project Title: “A Fundamental Study of the Effects of Design on Heterogeneous Biocatalysts"

Dr. Frank Jones, Lead PI

Objective: T Perform computer simulations to study the fundamental effects of changing the size, shape, location, and density of packing particles on conversion in microchannels in order to develop the ability to design a packing structure for optimum conversion. This ability should be of great economic value to the micro and non device community.


Project Title: “Geometry Manipulation and Visualization, Computational Simulation and Design"

Ms. Dawn Ellis and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop a platform independent console to facilitate the computational design process. Specific objectives include the ability to input geometry from a CAD package to prepare for meshing; the ability to define boundary constraints, group boundaries and define design variables based on the CAD model; the ability to place constraints to ensure geometric usability, and the ability to manage the overall design process by monitoring cost, gradients and constraints.


Project Title: “Extensible Adjoint Methods for Sensitivity Analysis, Error Estimation, and Adaptive Meshing"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop an adjoint solver based on the existing unstructured mesh solver in the SimCenter which will be discretely consistent with the flow solver and which will be “self maintaining” in that changes in the analysis code will be automatically reflected in the adjoint solver. Once developed, the adjoint solver will be used for sensitivity analysis, design, error estimation, and adaptive meshing.


Project Title: “Adjoint Method for Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Develop computational methods for numerically simulating problems involving magnetohydrodynamics. This capability would provide the ability to simulate MHD problems where the results have quantitatively known levels of accuracy. The results can be used to support research in fusion.


Project Title: “Computational Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Components"

Dr. W. Kyle Anderson and Dr. Steve Karman, Co-PIs

Objective: Use numerical simulations to analyze and improve fuel cell components that are considered critical for advancing the technology to the point where fuel cells become a viable means of producing power for industrial applications.


Project Title: “Computational Engineering with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells"

Dr. James Henry, Lead PI

Objective: Enable a thorough investigation and analysis of the modeling, operation and performance of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) used in the Chattanooga Fuel Cell Demonstration project funded by the Department of Energy. The computer engineering and technical infrastructure is vital to the success of the Chattanooga Fuel Cell Demonstration project. The equipment control, data acquisition and communication of performance are all totally dependent upon reliable and effective computer hardware and software.


Project Title: “Advancement and Verification of the Navier-Stokes Flow Solver for Rocket Motor Internal Flows"

Dr. Abdollah Arabshahi, Lead PI

Objective: Provide a computational analysis tool in support and development of modeling and simulation of solid propellant rocket motors (SRMs) by government agencies and industry. To assess the current capability of the flow solver when applied to a basic internal flow problem with wall blowing and to enhance the capability of the solver to simulate flow representative of the internal flow of SRMs.


Project Title: Numerical Solution of the Boltzmann Equation with BGK Approximation"

Dr. Mr. R. Glenn Brook, Lead PI

Objective: Develop a robust solution algorithm and parallel computer code for numerically solving the Boltzmann equation with one or more variants of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision model. This work will serve as a foundation for future research into multispecies flows, chemically reactive flows, plasma flows, combustion, and computational design of nanoscale devices.


Project Title: “Development of an Unstructured Grid Algorithm for Turbomachinery"

Dr. Kidambi Sreenivas, Lead PI

Objective: Develop an algorithm capable of numerically simulating the flow field arising from multi-row (purely axial, as well as axial and radial combinations) turbomachinery. This algorithm will be implemented in an unstructured flow solver as unstructured grids are inherently more capable of handling complex geometries than corresponding structured grids. This capability will be used to carry out simulations of the unsteady interactions between blade rows of a turbomachine. This capability can also be applied to carry out simulations of a class of problems that involve rotation about a fixed axis, for example, propellers attached to ships and submarines, tilt-rotor aircrafts, helicopter rotor blades undergoing cyclic pitch variation etc.