The penalties for non-compliance are severe. With potential fines of hundreds of thousands of dollars for each civil violation of an EAR, ITAR or OFAC regulation, the cost of not closely adhering to export laws can easily climb into the millions of dollars.
Criminal penalties for willful misconduct are even harsher. In these cases, not only can the university be hit with major multi-million-dollar fines, but the researchers and administrators could also be sentenced to time in jail. In addition to the penalties noted below, export control violations can result in seizure and forfeiture of goods and denial of export privileges.