RCIO 2019 Posters, Session 2

This year's RCIO conference features 47 posters on a variety of research and application-oriented topics associated with I-O and other forms of psychology. Some research is already completed, some is underway, and some is in the development stages. The purpose of this poster session is to learn from and support each other as we work to push applied psychological research forward in work and organizational contexts. Click on the names and titles below to view more details about the featured posters for Session 2 of this year's conference.

This project aims to examine the relationship between work as a calling, job crafting, and person-job fit. Work as a calling is the internal force that drives individuals toward a specific career, whereas job crafting is the active adjustments one makes to improve aspects of his or her work. Person-job fit is the perception that employees have concerning a match between oneself and the chosen career path. Despite the numerous beneficial outcomes that have been empirically supported over time, only job crafting has been investigated as a direct predictor of this fit. Even then, there seems to be little research dedicated to this matter. Additionally, there still remains questions concerning how work as a calling fits into this model. It is unknown whether perceiving a calling increases person-job fit independently or through the mediation of job crafting. In order to improve perceptions of person-job fit, understanding the antecedents should be just as crucial as studying what follows, if not more so. To further the knowledge of these relationships, this project will gather data from working professionals who will be recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. The participants will complete a short survey involving work as a calling, job crafting, and person-job fit scales. They will be asked to respond through the use of a survey format administered online. The data will be analyzed by conducting a series of multiple regressions. The results of this study will further the research findings related to this topic, as well as support future attempts aimed at understanding ways in which person-job fit can be increased.

Sarah Graff
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: sag5p@mtmail.mtsu.edu

Employee job satisfaction and motivation are linked to their income level. Employee job satisfaction refers to an individual's contentment with his or her job. Employee motivation has two components; extrinsic motivation refers to external benefits an individual gain (i.e. pay), whereas intrinsic motivation refers to an individual's inherent satisfaction with one’s job (i.e. pride in the work they do). Higher or lower income levels impact employee satisfaction and motivation. It is hypothesized that individuals with medium-income ($45,000-$139,999) will have higher job satisfaction and motivation than individual with low-income ($0-$44,999). An independent samples t-test will be conducted between the two groups and the researchers will use two surveys to determine employee satisfaction and motivation. A 36-item Job Satisfaction Survey and 18-item Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale will be emailed to managers in food and service industry within 15 miles of Chattanooga City Hall. They will be incentivized to forward the survey to their employees, who will also be incentivized to complete the survey. We expect results to verify our hypothesis. Future research should examine how to potentially increase employee motivation by introducing and balancing more extrinsic and intrinsic factors in retail and food service positions.

Joseph Ryan Owens and Pankti Patel
Austin Peay State University
Email: jrowens967@gmail.com

When an individual perceives the relationship between what they put into an exchange relationship to be unequal to the outcomes they receive, they are said to be in a state of inequity, and they are likely to view the relationship as unfair. This perceived lack of fairness, caused by the state of inequity, is often referred to as injustice and can have negative effects on the individual and team. While the concepts of inequity and injustice are usually studied within an organizational context, they can also be applied to an athletic setting, specifically in regard to players participating on intercollegiate athletic teams. Currently, there have been very few theory-based approaches to exploring perceptions of injustice within an athletic context. The purpose of this study is to identify the specific types of injustice perceived by athletes within their intercollegiate teams, the athletes’ behavioral and cognitive responses to those perceptions, and the individual and team-related outcomes. The outcomes of interest in the present study are psychological well-being of the individual, as well as the individual’s perception of team cohesion. To measure these variables, online surveys will be distributed to student-athletes at local and regional universities. The findings should be beneficial in providing evidence of the practical use of theories of equity and justice within an athletic context. The results will also be beneficial for coaches in better understanding athlete perceptions of fairness and understanding the ways athletes respond to perceived unfairness. It is the hope that coaches can use this information to positively impact the athlete experience.

Linsey Klein, Kristen Jennings Black, PhD, Brian O'Leary, PhD, and Alexandra Zelin, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Email: whq632@mocs.utc.edu

With women gaining more knowledge and asking for more money, the disparity in the salary gap is starting to close. However, women are still getting paid less. It has been found that women generally do not negotiate as high of salaries as men (Mazei, Huffmeier, Freund, Stuhlmacher, Bilke, & Hertel, 2015). In fact, when women were reminded of the stereotype threat surrounding women and negotiation, they often had lower negotiated salaries and salary goals (Tellhed & Bjrklund, 2011; Kray, Thompson, & Galinsky, 2001). However, Gist, Stevens, and Bavetta (1991) found that salary negotiation performance was strongly, positively related to self-efficacy. The present study will examine whether goal setting training and self-management training will increase negotiation self-efficacy. We also want to examine the effect that well known negotiation stereotypes have on self-efficacy and salary goals.

Ashley Miller, Michael Hein, PhD, Judith Van Hein, PhD, Mark Frame, PhD, and Alexander Jackson, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: alf5n@mtmail.mtsu.edu

The performance of applicants in a job interview is a well-studied topic within I-O psychology, yet less attention has been given to applicant preparation throughout the hiring process. While professional interview coaching has been rigorously tested, the surfeit of freely-available information circulating the internet has yet to be examined for content accuracy and integrity. In an attempt to highlight this industry under-examined by researchers, the current study proposes an investigation of online materials aimed at job applicants. Particularly, the proposed study aims to determine the sources of advice materials and whether they promote applicant deception during the job interview. Using a team of trained undergraduate coders, the proposed study will systematically categorize and analyze all articles available through Google from March 2017 to March 2019. Articles will be coded according to their primary topic of advice (i.e., ideal attire, charismatic nonverbal behavior, or commonly-asked interview questions), the source of the information (i.e., professional publication, mainstream news outlet, non-professional publication), and the overall goal of the article. As the proposed study aims to determine whether the online advice industry attempts to enable applicants to promote themselves beyond their abilities—potentially compromising the integrity of the job interview—each article is labeled along a continuum of deception, from purely-descriptive Informational materials to more prescriptive Image Maintenance and Image Creation materials. Classification in this manner will provide a systematic overview of the content and motive of recent advice materials, informing I-O researchers and practitioners of the potential influence of this industry. Preliminary results from April 2017 point to a prevalence of descriptive Informational materials and somewhat-prescriptive Image Maintenance materials, with deception-tolerant Image Creation appearing less frequently. Materials focused on appropriate answers for popular interview questions (50% of articles), do’s and don’ts for leveraging social media in the hiring process (12% of articles), and the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities contributing to successful job interviews (11% of articles). Mainstream news outlets emerged as the second-largest source of advice materials, publishing one-third of coded articles. Initial results suggest the promotion of mild impression management by the advice industry through self-enhancing techniques provided in Image Maintenance materials. Fully categorizing recent advice materials will enable more thorough examination and comparison of online advice materials to research-supported interview techniques. In the absence of other research on this industry, completion of the proposed study will enhance I-O understanding of the magnitude and nature of these materials’ impact.

Rachel Whitman, Ana Kriletic, Kate Conkey, Thomas Wilmore, and Daniel Svyantek, PhD
Auburn University
Email: rlw0049@auburn.edu

Given that employees pose a large threat to organizational cybersecurity, much research attention has been directed to identifying individual risk factors for cybersecurity noncompliance and misbehavior at the cost of examining broad organizational risk factors. However, no study to date has formally examined how the risk of organizational cybersecurity incident changes over time, or how organizational characteristics affect this risk. The proposed study aims to conduct a survival analysis (SA) of cybersecurity events across the past decade, examining broad factors that impact the changing probability of cyberincidents. In particular, the proposed study will examine associations between cyberbreaches and industry type, annual revenue, and the sensitivity of information handled in the organization. While other studies have examined organization-wide risk factors, none have done so in a longitudinal analysis such as SA. The proposed study emphasizes the necessity of examining changes in risk across time due to the abundant evidence that cybersecurity incidents are increasing in both frequency and severity. Previously-employed methods such as odds ratios fail to account for the time-based component needed for properly analyzing the continuously-changing threat of cyberattacks. To analyze the impact of organizational factors on the risk of cyberincident, the proposed study will record security breaches (or lack thereof) for organizations listed in the top Fortune 1000 from 2005 to 2019, using publically-available data on over 9,000 cyberincidents recorded by Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Event data will be examined in R, and organizational factors will be examined for covariance with the risk of cyberincident. Preliminary results from 2004 Fortune 500 companies indicate significant associations between cyberincident risk and both industry type and annual revenue. By utilizing Survival Analysis, the proposed study will provide an enhanced, time-based view on the past prevalence of cybersecurity incidents and the organizational factors associated with increased risk. Emphasis of these factors serves to alert organizations of their unique vulnerabilities, inspiring increased attention to the subject of security.

Rachel Whitman, Ana Kriletic, Thomas Wilmore, Kate Conkey, and Daniel Svyantek, PhD
Auburn University
Email: rlw0049@auburn.edu

The present study seeks to investigate the nature of the relationships among cooperativeness, job strain, social support, and mental well-being. Job strain, as conceptualized in Karasek’s Job DemandsControl model (1979), is the outcome resulting from a prolonged experience of high job demands and low job control. The present study first investigates whether job strain affects employee mental wellbeing. Second, the model also proposes that an employee’s cooperativeness affects how strained an individual may feel at work (i.e. job strain). Finally, as cooperativeness is inherently social (Ross, Rausch & Canada, 2003), the present study investigates the role of social support as a potential mediator between cooperativeness and job strain. The present study seeks to provide conceptual clarity on the relationships among these variables in hopes of further understanding how organizations can positively affect employee well-being in the future.

Meredith Russell and Alexander Jackson, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: mr7r@mtmail.mtsu.edu

Since the start of the 21st century, the issue of sustainability in business and Human Resource practices has been a central topic of interest. More recently, human resources has come under considerable pressure to prove its worth, primarily by producing a more productive and engaged workforce. Sustainability has, thus, become an extremely interesting avenue of study for HR professionals as, at its core, sustainable practices aim to better all parts of an organization from the social, to the environmental, to the financial (the three components of the triple bottom line). This study will investigate the relationship between the extent to which Millennials are engaged in an organization and that organization’s score on sustainable performance measures.

Nicolas Simard, John Lang, Rachel Boone, Samantha Harris, Rosalyn Rease, Jim Westerman, PhD, and Shawn Bergman, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: simardnf@appstate.edu

An average degree in psychology incorporates understanding of social constructs, behaviorism, individual motivations, empirical research designs, levels of statistical analysis, and a deeper understanding of problem-solving. Yet, even with the various skills psychology students gain in their training, they are chronically unemployed in the workforce. One possible reason psychology graduates are continually underemployed is that they do not understand how their learned skill sets translate into the workplace. The proposed study aims to address this gap by developing a survey to assess psychology students’ understanding of the knowledge and critical skill sets they gain in their degree program and their understanding of the practical, transferable implementations of these sought-after workplace skills. The outcomes of the proposed study will deepen the understanding of what undergraduate psychology students know and understand about the application of what they have learned through their education. This knowledge can then be used to design interventions or trainings that will assist students in articulating what they have learned in their training to the job market and future careers.

Shamin Jamadar, Hope Ugboro, Chris Tosto, Taylor Lundy, Ana Mateus, and Shawn Bergman, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: jamadarsk@appstate.edu

Whether you are an instructor trying to relate to their students, an employee trying to impress their boss, an athlete trying to intimidate their opponent, or anywhere in between; everyone uses impression management in some form or another. The primary purpose of our study is to develop a conditional reasoning test that can detect an individual’s dominant impression management strategies as well as abnormal levels of impression management. The conditional reasoning test would be utilized by employers to detect the use of impression management strategies among job applicants, allowing employers parse potentially misleading or false information provided during the selection process. Currently, we have established a conditional reasoning test that should predict preferred impression management response types. Additionally, we are looking to create a secondary forced-choice survey to be administered after the conditional reasoning test. By forcing participants to select impression management responses, we believe this will provide valuable insight into participants preferred impression management strategies in an applicant-type position which can be compared to participants’ results of the conditional reasoning test in order to establish its validity.

Parker Nolte, Bryce Davis, Zhen Graham, Daniela Miranda-Hernandez, Haiden Weaver, and Yalcin Acikgoz, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: noltepd@appstate.edu

The purpose of the project is to determine if the concept of Office Housework (OH) is included as an Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) or if the two are different and form two separate constructs. This project proposes to use two preexisting OCB measures and a list of OH tasks and have participants rate each item on how well it represents the behavior of an ideal employee. The results will be analyzed via confirmatory factory analysis (CFA). Additionally, this study seeks to determine if men are participating in less OH than women because of lower self-efficacy for tasks of that nature. Participants will be asked the frequency at which they complete OH tasks and how confident that are in their ability to complete them. The results will be analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results of the study will clarify Office Housework’s role in contextual performance and if there are discrepancies in contextual performance between men and women.

Macie E. Mussleman and Judith Van Hein, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: mem8d@mtmail.mtsu.edu

Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a widespread, and ever-growing problem in American society today. Individuals who undergo treatment for their addiction often find it difficult to gain employment due to employers' negative perceptions of addiction. Previous research has found that many employers have a stigma of those in addiction recovery. However, little research has been done to determine if these stigmas affect hiring decisions. Drug and alcohol misuse are prominent in the Appalachian area, which presents an issue for employers in the area who maintain a drug-free work place or who have a stigma of those in addiction recovery. The proposed study will assess employers’ attitudes towards applicants who have a history of substance misuse and/or are in treatment for substance misuse, with specific focus on self-reported likelihood of hiring an applicant who is in recovery. We hypothesize that employers will report a decreased likelihood of hiring individuals who are in recovery for substance misuse. Participants who are at least eighteen years of age and English-speaking will complete a survey on the REDCap web platform that includes a subset of questions from the Addiction Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (AABS). Items that will be used to assess employers’ attitudes were adapted from the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS) and the Perceived Stigma Addiction Scale (PSAS). The proposed study is part of a larger study that is assessing attitudes and beliefs toward addiction among employers and within faith communities, as well as perceived stigmas experienced by those who are living with addiction or have a history of substance misuse, with particular emphasis on attitudes within the Appalachian Highlands community. Possible limitations of this proposed study include the lack of generalizability since employers in the Appalachian area may not be representative of the overall population. Another possible limitation is the use of self-report measures. Participants may not be willing to report accurately due to the sensitivity of the topic. If results of the proposed study support our hypothesis, further research should look at ways to reduce stigma and support employers in hiring those in addiction recovery. Existing research suggests that employment is vital for addiction treatment success and is associated with a decreased likelihood of relapse, making the need for the amelioration of this stigma imperative in dealing with the addiction crisis.

Haley Henderson, Valerie Hoots, Joseph Barnet, and Andrea Clements, PhD
East Tennessee State University
Email: hendersonh@etsu.edu

Big data is being used by organizations to identify trends and predict future safety incidents. However, analytics using big data relies heavily on data quality, which can be compromised by a lack of data variability. In the safety industry, the data reports most frequently analyzed include checklists that are filled out by managers and operators, and research is being attempted to link the variables from these reports to safety outcomes. A major obstacle is the reduced variability in these reports due to a phenomenon known as “pencil whipping.” Pencil whipping occurs when an employee completes a safety checklist during behavior-based safety observation without actually carrying out the work required (e.g., checking “safe” all the way down the checklist; Ludwig 2014). In order to run analyses that will create targeted interventions, organizations need to reduce pencil-whipping in their reports. This study will attempt to identify data markers of pencil whipping and will investigate the effects of pencil whipping on data variability and analysis.

Maira Compagnone, Royale Nicholson, Sam Biggs,  Connor Linden, Tara O'Neil, Matthew Laske, Philip Hinson,  and Yalcin Acikgoz, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: compagnoneme@appstate.edu

It has been determined that there are many different ways to learn. Learning-by-teaching is a generative learning strategy and will be the main topic for the current research. The learning-by-teaching literature is very scattered in its approach. Some of the research has focused on showing the effect in a lab setting (e.g., Annis, 1983; Bargh & Schul, 1980; Fiorella & Mayer, 2013; Fiorella & Mayer, 2014; Hoogerheide et al., 2016; Hoogerheide et al., 2014; Herberg, Levin, & Saylor, 2012; Nestoiko, et al., 2014), while other research has focused on determining if teaching TAs using computer software can produce increased learning gains (Biswas et al., 2005; Chase et al., 2009; Okita & Schwartz, 2013), and others have taken it a step further to focus on finding learning-by-teaching in the workplace (Gregory et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2014, Tang et al., 2004). There are mixed results within the learning-by-teaching literature (Annis, 1983; Bargh & Schul, 1980; Hoogerheide et al., 2016; Herberg, Levin, & Saylor, 2012) . The goal of the present research will be to determine if isolating the learning-by-teaching method in the classroom can produce positive learning results. The participants for the current study will be students from the Fall 2019 Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology class, at Middle Tennessee State University. Students will complete a homework assignment on both Taylor Russell tables and Training ROI. They will then have a test on this material. Students will then be randomly assigned to one of two conditions; Taylor Russell tables or Training ROI. Students will be given approximately three weeks to complete the homework assignment of creating a video of them teaching the material they were assigned. Approximately 5 weeks after the first exam students will then be given a second exam that will include questions on both Taylor Russel tables and Training ROI. The researchers anticipate that students will perform better on the test questions on the subject that they were required to teach. Students who create higher quality videos are likely to have higher learning gains on the topic they taught. Finally, the researchers anticipate that students who spend more time creating their videos will exhibit higher learning gains.

Savannah Cain, Michael Hein, PhD, Aimee Holt, PhD, and Mark Frame, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: snc4p@mtmail.mtsu.edu

This study is testing a revised work recovery process model and gather data to provide guidance for work recovery activities based on their recovery quality value. Using an integrated and modified model of the stress-recovery process, recovery quality will be measured in terms of potential for psychological detachment, mastery, and control, with relaxation serving as an outcome state associated with the proposed three core recovery mechanisms. Underlying theoretical frameworks such as the Conservation of Resources Theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and the Job-Demands Resource model served as the foundation to describe the importance of recovering depleted resources. Past research suggests active forms of recovery in natural environments hold the greatest potential for work recovery, but research has been limited to broad activity category classifications. In this study we take a more holistic approach to identifying specific recovery activities and their associated recovery experience quality by asking participants to list, rank order, and provide quality-related details regarding their three most common recovery activities. A variety of analyses will be used to compare average ratings of recovery quality elements and identify common recovery themes.

Emily Nixon, Christopher J. L. Cunningham, PhD, Brian J. O'Leary, PhD, and Kristen Jennings Black, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Email: vqh686@mocs.utc.edu

Understanding the formation of preferences as they relate to decision making is a crucial task in identifying aspects of major projects; however, current literature has a deficit of this focus in regards to large-scale projects and large communities. This study aims to bolster the understanding of these large community preferences as they relate to large-scale projects. The study was conducted at two American Astronomical Society (AAS) conferences to gain information from the astrophysics community regarding NASA Decadal missions. Community preferences for Decadal missions are assessed through the Decadal Survey to summarize the opinions of the astronomical community regarding which missions should be prioritized in the next decade of NASA research. Data were collected using an online survey intended to measure community preferences. Researchers hypothesized that community preferences for engineering attributes of large-scale projects would differ, such as preferences for attributes such as the profitability of the mission, efficiency, reliability, resilience, etc. Conditions were derived from actual responses, and participants were sorted into four existing conditions: industry, academia, undergraduate/graduate students, and other communities. Most results were insignificant, but support was found that community preferences differed, particularly preferences of industry and academia versus students. Implications of this research suggest that project leaders of Decadal missions should take into consideration the preferences of each community separately. When predicting the decisions that agencies and communities will made, understanding the differences in the type of preferences formed will provide a valuable tool.

Cassandra Martin and Kristin Weger, PhD
The University of Alabama in Huntsville 
Email: cnm0021@uah.edu

Lean leadership organizations have been found to have higher productivity and performance. Leaders in these organizations implement their employees to embrace a culture of continuous improvement. Yet, only a few organizations have actually succeeded in their transformation by creating a culture that sustains a continuous improvement process. A transformation within an organization requires a vital behavioral shift from employees, especially those in leadership positions, in order to break from the typical way that organizations have long encouraged them to behave. Although the importance of lean leadership has been emphasized in previous literature, no consistent definition of lean leadership qualities exist. This research is divided into two phases to identify lean leadership qualities within business organizations, we will do our research in two main steps. First, through a systematic review of literature on lean leadership, a theoretical model of qualities for business leaders will be established. The foundation of this research, a conceptual model of lean leadership, was based on prior research by van Dun, Hicks and Wilderom (2016) to create a high-level categorical system of lean leadership qualities aligning with organizations. The second phase of our research will involve the recruitment of upper-level management subjects to participate in our study through the use of marketing, and or personal networks. Upper-level management personnel from the Better Business Bureau, which includes accredited organizations in the area, will be invited to a 3-hour summit. After their participation in our 3-hour summit, they are asked to complete a short questionnaire. In addition, phone and face-to-face interviews will be conducted on the topic of lean leadership qualities. After subjects complete the interview, researchers will analyze responses both qualitatively and quantitatively. The goal of this research is to provide a state of the art overview of identified lean leadership qualities within business organizations. These leader qualities may be inevitable in transforming a company into a high performing lean enterprise.

Jacob Theut
The University of Alabama in Huntsville 
Email: jjt0018@uah.edu

Previous research has found that stress is a key contributor to burnout, and the causes of stress include job demands, lack of resources, and personality traits (Bakker et al., 2014). Although most research on burnout has focused on employed populations, with work demands and resources contributing to burnout, college students may also be susceptible to burnout from their academic demands (Pisarik, 2009). Several studies have focused on the ways in which motivational dispositions can affect student burnout (Duran et al., 2006; Pisarik, 2009). However, there is a lack of research examining how perceptions of stressors can affect burnout. Particularly, viewing stress as a sign of achievement and stress as a competition (Jennings, 2017) could have some major implications for student burnout. The present study will investigate the relationship between stress as achievement and stress as competition and both social and academic burnout among college students. Because job demands have a positive relationship with burnout (Lee & Ashforth, 1996), the study also compares job status (e.g. full-time, part-time) of students as an additional stressor beyond academic demands. We examine how job status impacts the relationship between both types of stress perceptions and burnout. Our specific hypotheses are that: 1) stress as achievement has a positive relationship with burnout, 2) stress as competition has a positive relationship with burnout, and 3) these relationships are stronger depending when students are also employed. Data was collected via an in-person survey, which was a component of a larger daily diary study, of 134 college students at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Collection occurred during the final three weeks of the Fall 2018 semester, prior to final exams. The measures in the study included demographics, background information on individual differences, health behaviors, coping strategies, and the different perceptions of stress. Students were recruited through SONA, which offers extra credit for students taking Psychology courses that participate in research studies. Students had to complete the in-person background survey, and were then briefed on the expectations for the daily diary study. Analyses for this study are focused on data provided in the background study and are ongoing. Results will be prepared prior to the RCIO conference.

Alexandra Martin and Kristen Jennings Black, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Email: kwp979@mocs.utc.edu

This research project studies the Appraisal-Tendency Framework. Specifically, it observes whether emotional dispositions, such as sadness-proneness or trait anger, affect judgements made on whether a situation is just or unjust. In addition, this study also presents the question of whether gender impacts perceptions of fairness. All participants will be recruited from a Southeastern University. This study consists of two parts. For part one, all participants will complete an online survey to assess individual differences. Part two contains the experimental manipulations. This study uses a 2 (emotional induction) x 2 (gender of actor) design. For the emotional induction, participants will be randomly assigned to view a clip meant to induce feelings of sadness or feelings of anger. All participants will be asked to write a short response of a real-life emotional experience matching the emotion of the condition they are assigned to. They will then be randomly assigned to view a clip of an unjust situation carried out by either a female professor or a male professor. The outcome of this study could provide organizations with a better understanding of why certain emotions relate to certain judgements and decisions.

Sarah Tucker and Theresa DePriest
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: set4a@mtmail.mtsu.edu

Abstract Social Media has impacted every facet of society. One implication of Social Media concerns hiring practices. The ubiquity, easy-access, and wealth of information offered by Social Media have caught the eyes of recruiters. A survey by Careerbuilder (2018), which suggests 7 in 10 US employers use Social Media to research job candidates, captures this growing trend. HR departments in favor of Social Network Screening (SNS) argue that it helps avoid negligent hiring, attracts passive job-seekers, and investigates beneficial personality traits. But comparable issues, like lack of validity, legality, and privacy, also accompany it (e.g., Van Iddekinge, Lanivich, Roth, & Junco, 2016). With the advent of globalization, familiarity with international applicant reactions to selection methods becomes paramount for retention. These concerns are heightened amidst the global “war for talent” (Michaels, Handfield-Jones, & Axelrod, 2001). As business expand globally and SNS hiring methods proliferate, an examination of how culture influences applicant reactions to SNS screening becomes exigent. However, while research has explored applicant reactions to SNS (e.g., Stoughton, Thompson, & Meade, 2015), little research has explored cross-cultural reactions to this practice. According to Black, Stone, & Johnson, (2015), applicant reactions are influenced by Socio-Cultural Factors, which includes Power Distance Index, Individualism/Collectivism and cultural specific norms of privacy(Hofstede & Bond, 1984). Accordingly, this study uses the privacy model of Black et al. (2015) and Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede & Bond, 1984) to measure the differences in reactions to Facebook screening between US and Turkish applicants.

Jarod Fyler and Yalcin Acikgoz, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: fylerjc@appstate.edu

Current research notes a disconnect between well-being programs offered by organizations and those most valued by employees (Agarwal, Bersin, Lahiri, Schwartz, & Violini, 2018). Thus, the current study attempts to better understand the potential influence of health-driven, leisure activities on three worker characteristics, namely, workaholism, work stress, and work engagement. With a greater understanding, we hope to emphasize the importance of comprehensive well-being programs for both employers and employees who may experience any of the aforementioned characteristics. To best assess potential components of a well-being program, three leisure activities of interest (i.e., exercise, mindfulness-based practices, and vacation) were selected. These specific activities were chosen for their alignment with the recognized domains of individual health: physical, mental, and social (“Constitution of the World Health Organization, 2006), respectively. The potential relationships between these factors will be assessed through three questions. The first two questions explore the corollary relationships that may exist between workaholism, work stress, work engagement, and overall participation in leisure activities. This research posits workaholism will be positively related to work stress (Q1:H1), while work engagement will be negatively related to workaholism (Q1:H2) and work stress (Q1:H3). Considering the relationship between worker characteristics and leisure activities, it is hypothesized that participation in leisure activities will be negatively correlated with workaholism (Q2:H1) and work stress (Q2:H2), but positively correlated with work engagement (Q2:H3). The third question considers the potential moderating influence of each identified leisure activity on the relationship between workaholism and work stress. It is anticipated that participation in exercise (Q3:H1), mindfulness-based practices (Q3:H2), and vacation (Q3:H3) will have moderating influences on the relationship between workaholism and work stress, such that as participation in each of these activities increases, the relationship between workaholism and work stress will weaken. Surveys will be dispersed through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform and will include demographic questions and study measures. To assess participation in vacation activities, select questions from de Bloom et al.’s (2011) research will be used. Correlations will be obtained to test the first six hypotheses. To test the final three hypotheses regarding the potential moderating influence of leisure activities, a multiple regression analysis and Hayes’ PROCESS (2013) will be used.

Brittany N. Meier and Shahnaz Aziz, PhD
East Carolina University
Email: meierb18@students.ecu.edu

There is evidence in the literature that negative reactions to employee selection procedures such as high anxiety and low motivation are related to poor performance by job applicants on a selection test (McCarthy, Van Iddekinge, Lievens, Kung, Sinar, Campion, 2013). However, to date the studies examining this relationship were correlational, meaning that no causal relationship could be established. This implies that while it is possible that negative reactions predict low test performance, it is also plausible that the reverse is true (i.e., poor performance at the early stages of a selection test leads to high anxiety and low motivation) or a third variable is responsible for the observed relationship. In addition, there is evidence that the relationship between stress and performance is not linear but in the shape of an inverse U (Muse, Harris, & Field, 2003; Srivastava & Krishna, 1991), suggesting that extremely negative and extremely positive reactions lead to lower levels of performance while test performance is maximized at moderate levels of positive or negative reactions Accordingly, the proposed study will examine the relationship between applicant anxiety and performance on a selection test. We hypothesize that there will be a curvilinear relationship between applicant anxiety and performance that is mediated by self-regulatory processing and off-task cognition. In order to establish causality, an experimental design will be utilized such that the level of anxiety participants face during the study will be manipulated. After manipulating anxiety, participants will then complete a selection test. Random assignment to these anxiety conditions and a low level of test difficulty will ensure that the level of ability and self-efficacy on the task will be controlled for. The results of this study will allow for a more robust test of the relationship between applicant anxiety during selection procedures and test performance, and hence provide theoretical and practical implications for staffing researchers and practitioners.

Catherine Meyer and Yalcin Acikgoz, PhD
Appalachian State University
Email: meyermc@appstate.edu

This research study seeks to determine if defining more anchors on behaviorally anchored rating scales increases rater accuracy in ratings of employment interview responses. Additionally, the study will investigate if there are differences in accuracy of ratings between situational and behavioral interviews. Past research has found that BARS produces more accurate ratings when compared to other scales such as a Likert scale. Little research has been conducted regarding how many anchors should include behavioral descriptions on BARS. We propose that defining five anchors on BARS will produce more accurate results compared to only defining three anchors. Participants will be recruited from a Southeastern University. Participants will view both situational and behavioral interviews and rate the responses on behaviorally anchored rating scales.

Mary Iseral and Mark Frame, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Email: mi2y@mtmail.mtsu.edu