RCIO 2019 Posters, Session 1
This year's RCIO conference features 47 posters on a variety of research and application-oriented topics associated with I-O and other forms of psychology. Some research is already completed, some is underway, and some is in the development stages. The purpose of this poster session is to learn from and support each other as we work to push applied psychological research forward in work and organizational contexts. Click on the names and titles below to view more details about the featured posters for Session 1 of this year's conference.
This project will have two studies: Study 1 aims to examine the relationship between perceived stress and stress fasting, while Study 2 examines how employees who engage in stress fasting react to various organizational interventions. Occupational Health Psychology research has largely focused on the obesity epidemic in the U.S., which includes stress eating and applicable organizational interventions. Little research has been done on individuals who are more likely to participate in stress fasting, which may have equally detrimental health and organizational outcomes. Stress fasting is a detrimental reduction in calories and nutrition consumed, during times of real or perceived stress. Some research has found evidence that the length and strength of stress, such as acute or chronic stress, may affect eating choices and behaviors. In Study 1, participants will complete self-report surveys which measure perceived stress and stress fasting behaviors. Additionally, information will be collected regarding the type of job, type of industry, and busy period(s) for that industry. In the second study, participants from the same job site will be randomly assigned to either a control group, a “family-like” meal group, or working lunch group. The treatment groups will experience the assigned treatment twice in one month and will be given pre and post-test stress fasting self-report surveys.
Andrea Meggison, Xaymara Gonzalez-Adams, and Jeeun Yi
Middle Tennessee State University
Past research examines relationships between personality and leadership. One well studied factor of personality is conscientiousness. This personality trait would seem to be ideal in a leader. However, there may be a dark side to conscientiousness if a leader reaches a point in conscientiousness where it has a negative affect on their leadership skills. Studies have been conducted to examine the shape of the relationship between conscientiousness and aspects of leadership, though the results are inconclusive. For this proposed research study, the hypothesis is that a curvilinear shape is predicted between conscientiousness and leadership in higher education, meaning that leadership skills could diminish at a certain point if conscientiousness behaviors become detrimental. The author plans to examine the relationship between conscientiousness and leadership style in a higher education setting utilizing the hierarchy structure of department directors as leaders and their direct reports as followers. The data would be analyzed using regression analysis, including linear and squared tertiary split. If a linear relationship emerges, it would be interesting to control for personality of the followers to see if it moderates the leader’s relationship between conscientiousness and leadership. Additional data will be collected for secondary analyses. These analyses may allow for more generalizable information as well as being conducive to furthering the available literature. The focus of the poster will concentrate on the shape of the relationship between conscientiousness and leadership.
Leah Frazier and Adriane M.F. Sanders, PhD
Austin Peay State University
Employee stress can result in negative impacts both to the employee and to their organization. While all jobs are subject to stressors to some degree, certain occupations can face exceptional stressor levels or highly unique stressors because of the nature of the work. The proposed study aims to identify the common stressors for animal caretakers and the effects these stressors may have on employee engagement and burnout. The study will also examine the potential stress-buffering effects of personal and contextual resources. The project will examine common stressors that have been discussed in previous literature, as well as gain perspective on unique stressors to animal caretakers within zoos and aquariums. The study will specifically measure perceptions of environmental, social, and financial stressors within a sample of animal caretakers to determine the prevalence of each stressor and the relationship each stressor has with an employees’ level of engagement, burnout, and turnover intentions. I expect that each stressor will be related to less engagement, more burnout, and more turnover intentions. I will also examine the extent that resources of safety culture, as well as work centrality modify the impact of stressors on burnout, engagement, and turnover intentions. I expect that safety climate and work centrality may buffer the employees from the negative effects of stressors. Results from this study can be used to inform employee interventions to counter stressors in this unique field.
Destiny Burns and Kristen Jennings Black, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Having autonomy can produce positive effects on an individual’s well-being as well as overall job-satisfaction. Research has shown that background music influences listener attention and is associated with the listeners fondness of the music (Huang & Shih, 2011). This study investigates the effects that autonomy may also have on performance levels in the workplace. Specifically, the effects of listening to music of preference and the effects it has on attention, concentration, and enjoyment of task. In this study worker autonomy is operationally defined as preferred genre of music. Performance will be measured by participants score on a recall task that mimics a medical scenario where a healthcare worker would have to recall specific patient information. We hypothesize that participants autonomy preferred background music will have a positive effect on worker performance. If the predicted results are found, this research could be beneficial to companies that are considering implementing new policies to encourage autonomy and in turn produce greater success in the workplace.
Allison M. Bihl, Michael Humphrey, Drew Johnson, and Alaina C. Keim, PhD
High school math performance has the potential to have a positive impact on later educational success. This project seeks to determine the role of math services and intervention programs including online and in-person tutoring, workshops, coaching, physical tools, and other class services on students’ performance in the North Carolina’s High School Math 1 course. Data being used was gathered from rural North Carolina middle and high schools by the college access program GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs). The effects of these services will be measured by End of Grade (EOG) test and course grades in the Math 1 course. This project will help develop a deeper understanding of how these types of intervention services impact students' performance in current and future math courses.
Austin M. Melzer, Yasmin Ayala-Johnson, Stella Arnesen, Scott Kirby, Elise Haylett,
Jessica Harris, Andrea Reubens, and Shawn Bergman, PhD
Appalachian State University
This project aims to examine how the use of flexible work arrangements influence career earnings and promotions at work. The study will focus on the flexible work arrangement of telecommuting because of telecommuting’s surge in popularity over the last decade and the need for more studies assessing telecommuting’s effects. Research shows many benefits are associated with flexible work arrangements like job satisfaction, increased productivity, decreased turnover, and organizational savings. Flexible work arrangements, however, have been shown to potentially impede wage growth and other career advancing opportunities (e.g. promotions). For example, the use of FMLA policies as a flexible work arrangement and its impact on wage growth is commonly referred to as a parenthood penalty. While telecommuting has become more common in the workplace, people are still reluctant to engage in this flexible work practice for several reasons with the potential for career harm being a major concern. However, there is limited research of the impact telecommuting has on career harm in relation to salary and promotions. A major hurdle for researchers assessing the impact of telecommuting on career harm revolves around data collection methods and proper documentation of telecommuting practices by organizations. Ideally, an entity or researcher would gather longitudinal data from respondents over several years to compare those who engage in telecommuting and those who don’t. Additionally, many organizations have yet to maintain detailed records of an employee’s use of telecommuting practices in their own organization. Consequently, the manager is often responsible for monitoring an employee’s performance and it is usually up to the manager’s discretion on whether or not an employee will be allowed to telecommute. This decision by the manager adds another variable to the relationship between telecommuting and career harm, manager support. The existing literature comparing telecommuters to non-telecommuters conflict. Some reports show the positive impact telecommuting has on career earnings, while many others show career dampening results. The goal of this study is to assess the relationship between telecommuting and career harm by gathering years of historical data from respondents concerning their salary, promotions, intensity of telecommuting, manager support, organization characteristics, type of job, and career ambition. The data will be analyzed through fixed effect regression and mediation analyses on manager support and career ambition.
Cary McLeod and Patrick McCarthy, Ph.D., J.D
Middle Tennessee State University
Existing research indicates that perceived support (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986) is positively related to job performance and can influence perceptions of support by those with whom they interact (Eisenberger, Armeli, Rexwinkel, Lynch, & Rhoades, 2001). While there is a large body of research examining employees’ perceived support from their supervisors (i.e., perceived supervisor support: PSS; Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002) and the organization (i.e., perceived organizational support: POS, Eisenberger et al., 2001), little research has examined supervisors’ perceptions of support from their subordinates. The proposed study evaluates the relationship between Perceived Subordinate Support (PSubS; O’Leary, 2012) and organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the moderating impact of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX; Wilson, Sin, & Conlon, 2010) on these relationships. Participants will be supervisors at a local manufacturing organization (N = 150). We hypothesize that supervisors who feel supported by their subordinates will express higher levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and lower turnover intentions. We also expect the supervisor’s level of LMX with their immediate supervisor to moderate these relationships
Rachel Browder and Brian O'Leary, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Balancing relationships and jobs are difficult in the fast-paced lifestyle that the average American worker faces on a regular basis. If the relationship or job is more difficult and takes more energy and time, it may have an effect on the other. Too much attention on either area can be detrimental to the other, so it is crucial to maintain a balance between both areas of life. This idea is known as the spillover effect (i.e., how having a good marriage can produce satisfaction in both a relationship and in work) (Liang, 2015). Furthermore, family and work relationships can be beneficial or detrimental towards one another depending on how each spouse views the importance of both areas in their lives. A previous study looked at work-family relationship through the causes of exhaustion and stress when work and family demands overlap, and found that employees with more exhaustion from a lack of balance were less likely to be given promotions (Wayne, Lemmon, Hoobler, Cheung, and Wilson, 2017). This loss of energy can affect the success of a worker, specifically in the eyes of the supervisor, and revealed that exhaustion affects the mood towards the spouse and towards the boss. In the current study, we will be looking at the relationships between variables related to support outside of the workplace and important workplace variables such as satisfaction and engagement. Specifically, I will examine spousal support and its relationship with emotional exhaustion, engagement, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. I predict that spousal support will have a negative relationship with emotional exhaustion and a positive relationship with engagement, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Conversely, since spousal conflict should create conflict at home and drain energy and time resources, I predict that spousal conflict will have the opposite relationships compared to spousal support with the given variables. This study will also help identify certain areas that partners should be aware of to have a healthy relationship. However, although spousal support may be imperative for a long-lasting relationship, is also important for performance at work. Additionally, it is not just physical exhaustion that may impact work engagement, but also emotional exhaustion that may result from home-life spillover. Organizations can take these findings to evaluate how they can make their workspace better by encouraging meaningful time at work and also at home. Method Participants We will use Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to recruit approximately 250 participants for the study. MTurk is an online crowdsourcing platform where “workers” can complete tasks (e.g., surveys) for monetary compensation. Study inclusion criteria include the need to be married and a full-time employee. Design & Analyses For this study, spousal support, spousal conflict, emotional exhaustion, employee engagement, life satisfaction and job satisfaction will be measured. All variables will be assessed through MTurk. Correlational and regression analyses will be used to interpret results. Measures Spousal support. Spousal support will be studied using an eight-item scale that measures how much an individual feels affirmed from the people in their lives they view as supportive (Abbey, Abramis & Caplan, 1985). Items are measured from 1 to 5 with 1 = Not at All and 5 = A Great Deal. An example item is, “My partner listens to me when I need to talk about things that are very important to me”. Spousal conflict. Spousal support will be studied using a five-item scale that measures the conflicts that a person faces with family members that occurs in anger or tension (Abbey, Abramis & Caplan, 1985). Items are measured from 1 to 5 with 1= Not Very Much and 5= Very Much (Braiker and Kelly’s, 1979). An example item is, “When you and your spouse argue, to what extent are the problems or arguments serious?”. Employee engagement. Employee engagement will be studied using a nine-item assessment scale that measures a mindset that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez, & Bakker, 2002). Items will be modified from to measure engagement from the employee’s own perspective rather than their supervisors. Items are measured from 1 to 7 with 1= Strongly Disagree and 7= Strongly Agree. An example item that will be asked is “At work, I am full of energy”. Emotional Exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion will be studied using a five-item scale from the MBI General Survey that measures how someone distances themselves due to the amount of work as a coping mechanism (Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). Items are measured from 1 to 7 with 1= Strongly Disagree and 7= Strongly Agree. An example question is “I feel all used up at the end of the workday”. Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction will be measured using a three item scale that assesses employee satisfaction with their work, their coworkers, and their supervisor (Price & Mueller, 1986). Items are measured on from 1 to 5 with 1 = Very Unsatisfied and 5 = Very Satisfied. An example item is, “All in all, how satisfied are you with the work itself of your job?”. Life Satisfaction. Life satisfaction will be studied using the five item Satisfaction of Life Scale that measures an individual’s perception of their quality of life (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Items are measured from 1 to 7 with 1= Strongly Disagree and 7= Strongly Agree. An example question is “In most ways, my life is close to ideal”.
Ella Welch and Taylor Willits
This research proposal explores how counterproductive behavior within the workplace affects important work outcomes. Specifically, we will be examining the relationships between bullying, peer competition, and peer conflict and how it influences job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance. Bullying is a severe problem faced in many environments, and with new technology, such as social media, it has become even more prominent in society. For the purpose of this study, bullying is defined as an instance in which someone attacks another with harmful words or physical aggression. Discovering how bullying and related factors affect job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors is beneficial to an organization, as bullying may have critical effects at the individual and organization level. Past research has shown that bullying leads to critical negative outcomes. Some studies have shown that bullying leads to defensive and relational silence (Agarwal & Rai, 2017), and other studies have shown that bullying leads to aggression such as hateful words or conflict between coworkers. (Evans, 2019). Furthermore, prior research has demonstrated that bullying decreases job satisfaction (Fleischman & Valentine, 2017) and can have a negative impact on mental health (Beduna & Perrone-McGovern, 2019). Therefore, based on previous research, we hypothesize that counterproductive work behavior, such as bullying, peer conflict, or peer competition will have a negative relationship with job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The current study will use employees from a university teaching hospital and clinic to examine these relationships. Importantly, this research can help organizations understand the drastic effects of bullying and the effects it will have on both employees (e.g., job satisfaction) and the organization (e.g., job performance and citizenship behavior). More specifically, understanding how peer conflict and peer competition is related to bullying and important work outcomes will help organizations take action to remedy these negative effects. For example, they could have individual interventions or team building exercises to decrease the negative impact of peer conflict and competition. Overall, the results of this study could help put a spotlight on the detrimental effects of bullying, peer conflict, and peer competition and encourage organizations to cultivate a safe work culture.
Samantha Fogelberg and Taylor Willits
Teacher burnout and stress have been studied at length in the education literature, but industrial-organizational psychologists may have a fresh perspective to offer in regard to understanding and solving the problems that negatively impact the public education system. This study aims to identify the root causes underlying the constructs of stress and burnout through the examination of working conditions that impact teacher absenteeism, turnover, and health outcomes. Additionally, this study will analyze the various predictors of student outcomes, including yearly test scores, absenteeism, and disciplinary referral rates. We will begin by conducting focus groups of teachers from laboratory schools and comparable public schools to gather qualitative data to inform our hypotheses. In the next phase, we will create a tailored survey that thoroughly assesses the working conditions that we hypothesize to be connected to our outcome variables. This survey will be dispersed to teachers state-wide, and from the results, we hope to create a comprehensive model that connects various environmental conditions to student and teacher outcomes and propose interventions.
Lindsey A. Wuerfel, Karissa L. Scholten, Timothy J. Huelsman, PhD, Jennifer R. McGee,
PhD, Terry W. McClannon, Ed.D., and Shawn M. Bergman, PhD
Appalachian State University
The field of Industrial/Organizational psychology has long been concerned with the selecting the right individuals to fill the right positions within organizations. Of all the methods by which individuals are selected, the employment interview is the most common (Sears & Rowe, 2002). However, there are some that believe the employment interview may suffer from rater bias (cites). The phenomenon known as the “similar-to-me effect” is a type of bias that assumes those in a hiring position are more likely to select those candidates that exude personality characteristics that most closely resemble themselves (cite). Although the similar-to-me-effect is often viewed in terms of similar demographics such as age or race, the role of personality similarities has not received limited attention (Sears & Rowe, 2002). It is the goal of this study to examine the extent to which narcissists are prone to select other narcissists in an interview setting.
Richard Evitts and Mark Frame, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
Cooper Drose, Keith Eigel, PhD, and Sara Musgrove, PhD
The Leaders Lyceum
There is a plethora of approaches to training people on complex tasks. One method that has commonly been used is the whole-task training approach. Whole-task training occurs when an individual or group of people are trained on a task in its entirety within one training session (Wightman & Lintern, 1985). Another approach that has been used to train individuals on a complex task is through part-task training. Part-task training involves breaking down a complex task into smaller elements and training individuals on each of these elements before having to perform the task as a whole (Hasher, 1971). Throughout literature there has been a debate regarding which method is more effective for training individuals to complete complex tasks. There are many part-training methods, and because of this, some researchers suggest that the components of a task that a trainer chooses to focus on determines whether part-task training will show more favorable results than whole-task training (Wightman & Lintern, 1985). Wightman & Lintern (1985) suggest that the effectiveness of part-task training in part depends on the schedule in which the parts are practiced. Other researchers suggest that the qualities of the task, not the training method, determine which method will be superior. (Naylor & Briggs, 1963; Anderson, 1968; So, Proctor, Dunston, & Wang, 2013). The purpose of this study is to examine whether part-task or whole-task training is superior for teaching complex versus simple tasks. The researchers also will measure performance at two different times to distinguish between measures of immediate performance and measures of actual retention or skill acquisition. If researchers find that the task used was not high enough in complexity, researchers will still have established a baseline for which further research can stem. Due to previous research that says video games can help with real-world tasks, this study could potentially improve the way people are trained in a variety of tasks related to educational and organizational performance. Hypothesis: Part-task training will be superior to whole-task training for complex tasks RQ1: Which training is superior for simple tasks?
Kerstie McKinzey Hillman
Middle Tennessee State University
Injuries and fatalities continue to occur at high rates across industries (BLS, 2018) despite attempts from researchers and practitioners to identify risks and improve operating procedures. Data analysis is currently used across other industries to improve outcomes, and the safety industry is turning to the use of big data in an attempt to lower injury rates. Despite the growing body of research including both data and safety outcomes, little has been done to understand the mechanisms of one of the most popular intervention techniques, behavior-based safety (BBS). BBS relies on human observation techniques, along with checklists, which increases the amount of reporting errors that can occur due to (a) culture, (b) the number of items and forms, and (c) production pressure. A quota system, along with these systemic barriers, may lead to adverse reporting behaviors, which reduces the utility of the reports in analysis (e.g. predicting safety outcomes). Accordingly, this research will examine the effects of a mandatory quota system on data quality and consequently on safety outcomes.
Maira Compagnone, Ava Young, Rachel Bellflowers, Tara O'Neil, Matthew Laske, and Yalcin
Appalachian State University
Negative social evaluation can create a negative emotional response. Extreme negative evaluations create fear or anger and reduce self-efficacy (Pekrun, 2006; Shields, 2015). These negative feelings could harm the individual and they almost certainly reduce performance. Factors that neutralize the harmful effect of negative social evaluation could have utility in any performance or work setting. One factor that should be considered is the size of the social group within which the negative evaluation occurred and the “weight” of the negative evaluation. In simple terms, perhaps several positive or neutral evaluations can offset the effect of a single negative evaluation. This test will measure whether several neutral or positive evaluation will reduce the impact of one negative evaluation. The hypothesis is that in a larger group one negative evaluation will have less of an emotional impact on an individual. About 160 student participants will be tested in a performance task. The participants will be assigned to a group of either 2 or 8. Participants will be told that multiple groups are competing in the performance task. After an initial measure of performance, the participants will be told that their scores have been distributed to everyone in their group. Participants will believe this is 1 or 7 other people. The participants will then receive fabricated performance scores from the members of their team. They will rate these performances and express whether they want the team members to remain in the team. Finally, each participant will receive fabricated feedback which indicates that one team member does not want the participant to remain on the team. These will be either 100% negative evaluation in a team of 2 or 14% negative evaluation in a team of 8. Before the initial anagram task and after reading the fabricated evaluation data the participants will complete the PANAS scale (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988). The change in the PANAS score will be the dependent measure in this study. The group size, 2 versus 8, will be the independent variable. The analysis will be an ANOVA for a 2X2 mixed design. The findings could show whether positive individuals can offset the negative impact of critical individuals. In simple terms, can the presence of neutral or positive people dilute the harmful impact of one hateful individual? If this effect were confirmed it would have implications for group management in many performance settings.
Lacey Rutherford and Windy Gordon, PhD
Western Carolina University
This study contributes to the ongoing dialogue surrounding the benefits and drawbacks of remote work programs. The purpose of this research is to understand how communication and interdependence of work tasks influence the level of isolation perceived by remote workers. Remote workers are especially vulnerable to feelings of isolation in the workplace (Cooper & Kurkland, 2002; Elst et al., 2017; Dekker & Rutte, 2007; Golden, Viega & Dino, 2008), which can lead to decreased job performance (Golden et al., 2008), impede professional development (Cooper & Kirkland, 2002), and lead to negative work-related well-being (Elst et al., 2017). The results of this work will provide valuable insight when considering, designing, or implementing a remote work program.
Chelsea Bell and Judith Van Hein, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
The aim of the current study is to examine the relationships among workaholism, psychological capital (PsyCap), and well-being. Workaholism is a condition which affects approximately 10% of the U.S. population (Sussman, Lisha, & Griffiths, 2011). Research has found it to be linked to many adverse outcomes, including physical symptoms such as poor overall health (Taris, Schaufeli, & Verhoeven, 2005), as well as psychological symptoms such as work-stress, work-life conflict, and burnout (Clark, Michel, Zhandova, Pui, & Baltes, 2016). In the current research, we are interested in identifying a construct that might ameliorate the negative influence of workaholism on one’s well-being. Research regarding the outcomes of employee wellness programs are mostly inconclusive (Semmer, 2011), alluding to a lack of research on constructs that truly impact employees and their quality of work life. If significant results are found in the current study, this research could better inform organizations on ways to reduce work stress and combat negative effects on physical and psychological well-being resulting from workaholism. Thus, we seek to examine the potentially moderating influence of PsyCap on the relationship between workaholism and well-being. Similar to previous studies, we expect workaholism will be negatively related to physical health (H1a), workaholism will be negatively related to psychological well-being (H1b), and workaholism will be positively related to work stress (H1c). Furthermore, we hypothesize PsyCap will be positively related to physical health (H2a), PsyCap will be positively related to psychological well-being (H2b), and PsyCap will be negatively related to work stress (H2c). Finally, as a cognitive tool, it is hypothesized PsyCap will moderate the relationship between workaholism and physical health such that the higher the level of PsyCap, the weaker the relationship between workaholism and physical health (H3a), PsyCap will moderate the relationship between workaholism and psychological well-being, such that the higher the level of PsyCap, the weaker the relationship between workaholism and psychological well-being (H3b), and PsyCap will moderate the relationship between workaholism and work stress such that the higher the level of PsyCap, the weaker the relationship between workaholism and work stress (H3c). Participants will include full-time faculty and staff members of a large Southeastern university, recruited via an online email distribution service. The hypotheses will be tested using a multiple regression analysis. The interaction effect of workaholism and PsyCap will be assessed. Lastly, a PROCESS Hayes (2014) analysis will be used to examine the potential moderating effect of PsyCap
Beatrice DeMott and Shahnaz Aziz, PhD
East Carolina University
In psychological research, it is the job of the researcher to come up with quantitative and qualitative measures for the subject in the experiment. In the present research, we investigate the subject’s personality in relation to leadership, leadership performance before and after coaching, and the relation of group preference to how a group ultimately selects its leader. The natural assumption is that most extroverted people are the automatic choice for a leader. Or perhaps the best choice is someone with the most leadership experience. In fact, only some leader-like people will ever voluntarily elect themselves to be the leader. We observe the role of the leader to better understand how their personality affects their perceived leadership communication style and how individual preference affects group alignment. In this study, 109 participants where they were asked to assign themselves roles in a group project. Each group has 3-4 members. Participants are asked to complete a structure with-in a given amount of time. After the first structure is complete, they are asked to complete the project a second time. Coaching conditions are set prior so that we can observe significant changes in a leader’s performance. Personality tests are taken subsequent to the experiment for qualitative purposes.In addition, we have found a number of cases where a more dominant communicator takes over the lead of the project and overshadows the presence of the selected leader. To account for this, a secondary leader is recorded to how they might influence the effectiveness of the group dynamic. Though our research primarily focuses on the selected leader and their effectiveness, future research could expand upon the implication of identifying the secondary leader and observing them in more detail. This could be done by asking them more questions, coaching them, or having them swap roles.
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
Organizations around the world are beginning to appreciate and desire the knowledge of students and employees with a background in psychology (especially industrial/organizational psychology). I recently secured a position as a junior consultant with an international lean management consulting firm (STAUFEN) through networking with my advisor/professor. As a junior consultant, I was placed in an elevator company that required assistance of consultants to reverse the internal status of the company. I along with other consultants were responsible for training employees on lean management, implementing office daily management, coaching employees up to executives on leadership behaviors and traits, and executing training workshops. Implementing office daily management consisted of pulling together data from each department of the company, and creating visibility and transparency with the data during a daily meeting with team members. The data was utilized in decision making, proactive planning, and problem solving. Coaching leaders of the company consisted of self-reflection from leaders, and assisting them on increasing self-awareness. My main focus with most leaders was on improving and developing leadership behaviors for themselves and their team members. I’ve gained a further understanding of leadership behaviors, and especially how to visibly convey data in an easier way for it to be analyzed and comprehended by team members of a company.
Lisa Matsuyama and Kristin Weger, PhD
The University of Alabama in Huntsville
Workers have different pacing styles, which are defined as how workers distribute their effort over time to complete a task. Some workers prefer a high rate of initial effort, some choose a medium rate of consistent effort, and others enjoy a high rate of effort near the task’s due date. Furthermore, shared mental models among workers help reduce stress and increase performance by keeping everyone on the same page. As a result, it is predicted that discrepancies between leader and follower pacing styles may be one unshared mental model that positively relates to individual stress, negatively relates to individual performance, and negatively relates to group performance. To test these hypotheses, previously collected data from a high fidelity aviation simulation lab will be analyzed. This lab includes a leader who manages several followers to safely coordinate flights. If the aforementioned hypotheses are supported, then pacing styles may be important to consider with Leader-Member Exchange Theory. This theory posits that leaders and followers share a relationship built upon growth through work. If the leader and follower have different approaches to work, though, the leader-follower relationship could be strained. To further understand the leader-follower dynamic, this study’s variables are encouraged to be considered.
Reed Priest, Michael Hein, PhD, and Glenn Littlepage, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University
There is a plethora of research regarding domestic violence, but there is a considerable lack of research on when victims of domestic violence return to the workplace. When victims of domestic violence return to work, they may experience symptoms of withdrawal, disengagement, and lower productivity. Therefore, it is important for organizations to understand how to reintegrate victims of domestic violence into the workplace without taking on the role of a psychologist. We propose in order to successfully reintegrate victims of domestic violence into the workforce, it is imperative that organizations provide emotional, psychological, and physical resources to best support the victim. When organizations fail to recognize they have victims of domestic violence in their workforce, the victims are not the only ones adversely affected. This presentation will address the current gap in research regarding when victims of domestic violence return to work, how organizations can best reintegrate victims of domestic violence, and recommendations on how organizations can offer support in the future.
Corrine Wolfe and Alexandra Zelin, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Every year in the United States, a large number of ex-offenders are convicted of a new crime after their initial release. Although the national statistic for prison recidivism is debated, a study published in 2018 by the U.S Department of Justice reported that 83% of state prisoners released in 2005 across 30 states were arrested again at least once after their release (Alper, et al., 2018). Research exists on the cause of recidivism as well as strategies to reduce it (Schmitt, Warner, & Gupta, 2010; Koschman and Peterson, 2013). One factor that contributes to this high rate of recidivism is that many ex-inmates lack the career- and job-related skills needed to integrate back into society and obtain stable employment (Petersilia 2004). This suggests that there may be utility in providing a variety of skills-based training programs either during time in prison or immediately after release. However, currently there is limited cumulative knowledge about the types of training programs that exist for prisoners or the extent to which such programs are effective. Our research project aims to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the empirical research on training programs for prisoners in the United States. Findings will be informed by the results of the review and will include and overview of the type of job training offered (e.g., trade skills, interpersonal skills, resume building, job-related skills such as math, reading and writing), the extent to which such training programs have demonstrated positive effects, and the populations targeted (e.g., men, women, individuals in recovery from substance abuse). We will also examine if multi-component programs are associated with more positive outcomes and if program effectiveness varies by prisoner age, sex, type of offense and point in the correctional process that the training is administered (pre-prison, during prison, probation). We are currently in the process of conducting a systematic literature review focusing on peer-reviewed empirical articles that focus on the effectiveness of career- and job-related training for working age prisoners in the United States. To be included in the review, articles must include the evaluation of a training program designed for and delivered to prisoners in the United States. Through this literature review, we hope to inform future research and identify areas of high priority for improvement.
Hannah Stockdale, Lillian Eby, PhD, and Melissa Robertson, PhD
University of Georgia, Owens Institute of Behavioral Research
Ally Skill-Building workshops are a recent development within the diversity field. Building allies in the workplace is essential to creating a culture of inclusion and respect and assists in mitigating the potential negative implications of an ever-increasing diverse workforce. While theoretical evidence exists surrounding individual and contextual factors that may impact the effectiveness of an Ally Skill-Building Workshop, no study has addressed the social norms, personality dispositions, biases stemming from social categorizations, reactions, and behavioral intentions over time. Specifically, assessing the level of inclusivity of participating organizational departments via social norms will help determine the environment in which an ally skill-building workshop will have the power to be impactful. Further, understanding individual differences such as a belief in the malleability of personality and the extent to which one holds color-blind racial attitudes and sexist beliefs, the present study seeks to determine a pathway that identifies the individual and contextual variables that impact the behavioral outcomes of an Ally Skill-Building Workshop. However, identifying the antecedents to an impactful Ally Skill-Building workshop is only half of the story being told. The present study will also assess participant reactions to the Ally Skill-Building workshop and their intention to display allyship behaviors post-workshop. Utilizing an applied longitudinal analyses, the present study will contribute to the diversity literature by assessing a unique combination of antecedents and outcomes over time.
Chelsea Wymer and Alexandra Zelin, PhD
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
This study tested two competing theories describing how information is shared in a selection process. The information processing theory says critical unshared information, important information not originally known, is more impactful than shared information, information known prior to making a decision. The alternative theory is social validation which says shared information is more impactful than unshared information. The importance of the information as well as when the information was provided, either prior to or after making an initial preference, was used to test each theory. Critical unshared information was more impactful in this study. Further results seem to suggest interactive effects between social validity and informational value of information provided by others.
Seth Thomas and Glenn Littlepage, PhD
Middle Tennessee State University