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Cite Primary Sources

Properly citing primary sources is important--and ethically necessary--to provide full credit to the creators and publishers of documents, and to allow future scholars to find the source quickly and correctly. The examples below use style guidelines that are commonly used in history (Chicago) and language arts (MLA) disciplines.

Chicago Manual of Style

Additional information may be found in the Purdue Online Writing Lab's section on the the Chicago Manual Style. You may also consult our copies of The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.) or Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.), which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

N: Herr, John K. and Edward S. Wallace. The Story of the U.S. Cavalry, 1775-1942 (Boston : Little, Brown, 1953), 241-51.
B: Herr, John K. and Edward S. Wallace. The Story of the U.S. Cavalry, 1775-1942. Boston : Little, Brown, 1953.
N: Esther Mendez. "UTC Terminates Project Chantek." The University Echo (Chattanooga, TN), Feb. 28, 1986.
B: Mendez, Esther. "UTC Terminates Project Chantek." The University Echo (Chattanooga, TN), Feb. 28, 1986.
N: Frank Messer, interview by Bethany Baxter, December 10, 2008, transcript. http://scholar.utc.edu/american-chestnut/8/ (accessed August 23, 2103).
B: Messer,Frank. Interview by Bethany Baxter. December 10, 2008, transcript. http://scholar.utc.edu/american-chestnut/8/ (accessed August 23, 2103).
N: "Danforth Chapel," University Tennessee at Chattanooga Special Collections and University Archives, 2010, accessed August 23, 2013, http://digital.library.utc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15369coll1/id/104.
B: "Danforth Chapel," University Tennessee at Chattanooga Special Collections and University Archives. 2010, accessed August 23, 2013. http://digital.library.utc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15369coll1/id/104.
N: John Edward Benhart Jr., "Capitalism, regional development, and place formation: An analysis of the Upper Tennessee River Valley, 1860-1900" (doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1995), 22-27, accessed August 23, 2013, http://search.proquest.com/docview/304236805?accountid=14767.
B: Benhart, John Edward, Jr. "Capitalism, regional development, and place formation: An analysis of the Upper Tennessee River Valley, 1860-1900." Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1995. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://search.proquest.com/docview/304236805?accountid=14767.
N: University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, "Special Collections and University Archives," UTC.edu, accessed August 23, 2013, http://www.utc.edu/library/special-collections-and-university-archives/.
B: University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. "Special Collections and University Archives," UTC.edu. Accessed August 23, 2013. http://www.utc.edu/library/special-collections-and-university-archives/.

MLA Style

Additional information may be found in the Purdue Online Writing Lab's section on MLA Style. You may also consult our copies of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.).

Herr, John K. and Edward S. Wallace. The Story of the U.S. Cavalry, 1775-1942. Boston: Little, Brown, 1953. Print.
Mendez, Esther. "UTC Terminates Project Chantek." The University Echo 28 Feb. 1986: 3. Print.
Messer, Frank. Interview by Bethany Baxter. American Chestnut Oral History Project. Special Collections and University Archives, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 2008. Web. 23 Aug. 2013. <http://scholar.utc.edu/american-chestnut/8/>.
Danforth Chapel. 2010. Photograph. Special Collections and University Archives, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Web. 23 Aug. 2013. <http://digital.library.utc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15369coll1/id/104>.
Benhart, John Edward, Jr. Capitalism, Regional Development, and Place Formation: An Analysis of the Upper Tennessee River Valley, 1860-1900. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1995. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Web. 23 Aug. 2013. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/304236805?accountid=14767>.
Special Collections and University Archives. University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 2012. Web. 23 Aug. 2013. <http://www.utc.edu/library/special-collections-and-university-archives/>.

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